Perceived Inclusiveness of the Context, Identities and Acculturation of Russians in Kyrgyzstan and Estonia



Kyrgyzstan and Estonia are two post-Soviet countries which, after the collapse of the USSR, chose different trajectories of ethnopolitical and socio-economic development, attitudes towards the Russian language, the Soviet period of their history, as well as interaction with Russia in the international arena. The focus of the article is perceived inclusiveness of the modern sociocultural contexts by Russians living in Kyrgyzstan or Estonia as well as its role in their identification and acculturation (N = 630). As a result of the path analysis, it was revealed that the perceived inclusiveness of the contexts of Kyrgyzstan and Estonia by Russians is positively associated with civic (Kyrgyz and Estonian) identity, the strategy of integration and assimilation, and is negatively associated with the strategy of separation. Moreover, the perceived in clusiveness of the Estonian context by Russians is negatively associated with ethnic and religious identity. These and other universal and context-specific patterns of relationships are discussed in the article through the prism of sociocultural contexts of Kyrgyzstan and Estonia.

General Information

Keywords: perceived inclusiveness of the context, ethnic identity, civic identity, religious identity, European identity, acculturation, integration, assimilation, separation, Russians, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Science Foundation (RSF), project number 20-18-00268.

Received: 18.08.2021


For citation: Lepshokova Z.K. Perceived Inclusiveness of the Context, Identities and Acculturation of Russians in Kyrgyzstan and Estonia. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2021. Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 25–33. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2021170403.


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Information About the Authors

Zarina K. Lepshokova, PhD in Psychology, Leading Research Fellow, Center for Socio-Cultural Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Аssociate professor, Department of Psychology, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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