The Validation of Tendency to Forgive and Attitudes Toward Forgiveness Scale on the Russian-Speaking Sample

901

Abstract

The article presents the results of the validation of the Tendency To Forgive and Attitudes Towards Forgiveness Scale on a Russian sample which included 366 healthy adult participants. The questionnaire is based on R. Enright’s cognitive model of forgiveness, in which the ability to forgive is determined by the social cognition quality (awareness of one’s own emotions and emotion self-regulation and empathy towards the offender). The study established plausible reliability of both scales. Confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted. The authors analyzed correlations of the tendency to forgive and attitudes towards forgiveness with indicators of emotional ill-being, social cognition, quality of life, life satisfaction, and a number of personal traits (such as Machiavellianism and the Big Five: extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience). The results are discussed in the context of adaptive versus maladaptive aspects of forgiveness, as well as in the context of the psychological basis of adaptive ability to forgive.

General Information

Keywords: endency to Forgive Scale, attitudes toward forgiveness, social cognition, cognitive therapy for depressive disorders

Journal rubric: Empirical Researches

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp.2018260403

For citation: Kononova A.P., Pugovkina O.D. The Validation of Tendency to Forgive and Attitudes Toward Forgiveness Scale on the Russian-Speaking Sample. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2018. Vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 27–45. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2018260403. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Gassin E.A. Psikhologiya proshcheniya [Psychology of forgiveness]. Voprosy Psikhologii, 1999, no. 4, pp. 93—104.
  2. Gil’bukh Yu.Z. Uchitel’ i psikhologicheskaya sluzhba shkoly [The teacher and the psychological school department]. Kiev: In-t psikhologii APN Ukrainy, 1993. 79 p.
  3. Drobizhev M.Yu. Neironal’naya plastichnost’ — novaya mishen’ v terapii depressii [Neural plasticity as the new target in the therapy of depression]. Moscow: NTsPZ RAMN, 1993. 24 p.
  4. Znakov V.V. Makiavellizm: psikhologicheskoe svoistvo lichnosti i metodika ego issledovaniya [Machiavellianism as a psychological personal trait and a method of its measurement]. Psikhologicheskii Zhurnal, 2000. Vol. 21 (5), pp 16—22.
  5. Klimenkova E.N., Kholmogorova A.B. Validizatsiya metodik diagnostiki sotsial’noi trevozhnosti na rossiiskoi podrostkovoi vyborke [The validation of methods of diagnosis of social anxiety on the Russian adolescents]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], Vol. 25 (1), pp. 28—39. doi:10.17759/cpp.2017250103. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  6. Krivcova S.V. Phenomenological approach in study of noodynamic experiences. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [ Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2010, no. 4, pp. 48—67. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
  7. Kunitsyna V.N. Narusheniya, bar’ery, trudnosti mezhlichnostnogo neformal’nogo obshcheniya [Deficits, barriers and difficulties in informal interpersonal communication]. In A.A. Krylov (ed.). Aktual’nye problemy psikhologicheskoi teorii i praktiki [Contemporary issues in psychological theory and practice]. Saint Petersburg: SPbGU, 1995, pp. 82—92.
  8. McCullough J. Lechenie khronicheskoi depressii [Treatment for Chronic Depression]. Saint-Petersburg: Rech’, 2003. 368 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Pechin Yu.V. Stanovlenie i razvitie psikhologii proshcheniya v SShA: kratkiĭ obzor [Elektronnyĭ resurs] [The genesis and development of the psychology of forgiveness in the USA: a brief survey]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie psyedu.ru [ Psychological Science and Education], 2014. Vol. 6 (4). Available at: http://psyedu.ru/journal/2014/4/Pechin.phtml (Accessed 09.10.2016). (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  10. Pugovkina O.D. Narusheniya sotsial’nogo poznaniya pri depressii: teoreticheskie podkhody, metody izucheniya i vydelennye defitsity [Models and methods for studying the impairment of social cognition in depression: theoretical approaches, methods of study and highlighted deficits]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], Vol. 22 (4), pp. 80— 97. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  11. Rasskazova E.I. Metodika otsenki kachestva zhizni i udovletvorennosti: psikhometricheskie kharakteristiki russkoyazychnoi versii [The method of estimation of quality of live enjoyment and satisfaction: psychometric traits of the Russian version]. Zhurnal Vysshei Shkoly Ekonomiki [Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics], 2012. Vol. 9 (4), pp. 81—90.
  12. Tomil’tseva D.A. Opyt proshcheniya: sotsial’no-filosofskii analiz. Avtoref. dis. ... kand. filosof. nauk. [The social and philosophic analysis of the forgiveness experience. D. (Philosophy) Thesis]. Ekaterinburg, 2010. 21 p.
  13. Kholmogorova A.B. Kognitivno-bikhevioral’naya terapiya “na grebne tret’ei volny”: revolyutsionnyi povorot ili novye aktsenty? [Cognitive-behavioral treatment on the edge of the third wave: revolutionary turn or new accents?]. Sovremennaya terapiya psikhicheskikh rasstroistv [Contemporary treatment of mental disorders], 2016, no. 2, pp. 16—22.
  14. Kholmogorova A.B., Pugovkina O.D. Osnovnye etapy i napravleniya izucheniya kognitivnykh disfunktsii pri depressiyakh [Elektronnyi resurs] [The main stages and directions of study of cognitive dysfunction associated with depression]. Meditsinskaya psikhologiya v Rossii: elektron. nauch. zhurn [Medical psychology in Russia: online scientific journal], 2015, no. 6 (35). Available at: http://mprj.ru (Accessed 09.10.2016).
  15. Chukova A.S. Sotsial’no-psikhologicheskie kharakteristiki proshcheniya kak fenomena mezhlichnostnogo obshcheniya: Avtoref. diss. kand. psikhol. nauk. [Social and psychological characteristics of forgiveness as an interpersonal communication phenomenon. D. (Psychology) Thesis]. Saratov, 2011. 22 p.
  16. Akhtar S., Dolan A., Barlow J. Understanding the relationship between state forgiveness and psychological wellbeing: A qualitative study. Journal of Religion and Health, 2017. Vol. 56 (2), pp. 450—463. doi:10.1007/s10943-016-0188-9
  17. Berry J.W. et al. Dispositional forgivingness: Development and construct validity of the transgression narrative test of forgivingness (TNTF). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 27 (10). pp. 1277—1290. doi:10.1177/01461672012710004
  18. Berry J.W. et al. Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. Journal of Personality, Vol. 73 (1), pp. 183—225. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00308.x
  19. Brown R. Measuring individual differences in the tendency to forgive: Construct validity and links with depression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2003. Vol. 29 (6), pp. 759—771. doi:10.1177/0146167203029006008
  20. Enright R.D. Psychological science of forgiveness: Implications for psychotherapy and education. Presented at the Conference, Neuroscience and Moral Action: Neurological Conditions of Affectivity, Decisions, and Virtue. Pontificia Universita della Santa Croce. Rome, Italy. February 28, 2011. Available at: https://www. researchgate.net/publication/266879605_Psychological_Science_of_Forgiveness_ Implications_for_Psychotherapy_and_Education (Accessed 11.11.2018).
  21. Enright R.D. The Human Development Study Group. The moral development of forgiveness. In W.M. Kurtines, J.L. Gewirtz (eds.). Handbook of moral behavior and development. 1: Theory. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA, 1991, pp. 123—152.
  22. Enright R.D., Freedman S., Rique J. The psychology of interpersonal forgiveness. In R.D. Enright & J. North (eds.). Exploring forgiveness. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, pp. 46—62.
  23. Goldberg L.R. The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 1992. Vol. 4 (1), pp. 26—42. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.26
  24. Marks M. et al. A Function of Forgiveness: Exploring the Relationship Between Negative Mood and Forgiving. SAGE Open, 2013. Vol. 3 (4), pp. 1—9. doi:10.1177/2158244013507267
  25. McCullough M.E., Kurzban R., Tabak B.A. Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2013. Vol. 36 (1), pp. 168—190. doi:10.1017/S0140525X11002160
  26. McNulty J.K. The dark side of forgiveness: the tendency to forgive predicts continued psychological and physical aggression in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2011. Vol. 37 (6), pp. 770—783. doi:10.1177/0146167211407077
  27. Mullet E., Girard M. Developmental and cognitive points of view on forgiveness. In M.E. McCullough, K.I. Pargament, C.E. Thorsen (eds.). Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, 2000, pp. 111—132.
  28. Ricciardi E. et al. How the brain heals emotional wounds: the functional neuroanatomy of forgiveness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013. Vol. 7, pp. 1—9. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00839
  29. Tenklova L., Slezackova A. Differences between Self-forgiveness and Interpersonal Forgiveness in Relation to Mental Health. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 2016. Vol. 42 (2), pp. 281—289.
  30. Thompson L.Y. et al. Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of personality, 2005. Vol. 73 (2), pp. 313—359.
  31. Weissman M., Markowitz J., Klerman G. Clinician’s guide to interpersonal psychotherapy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. 183 p.
  32. Worthington E.L. Jr. et al. Forgiveness, health, and well-being: A review of evidence for emotional versus decisional forgiveness, dispositional forgivingness, and reduced unforgiveness. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2007. Vol. 30 (4), pp. 291—302. doi:10.1007/s10865-007-9105-8

Information About the Authors

Anna P. Kononova, Teacher of Subdepartment of Social Work Theory and Technology, State Autonomous Agency The Institution for Extended Education of Social Service Workers, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: luthiele@yandex.ru

Olga D. Pugovkina, PhD in Psychology, Assistant Professor, Chair of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Clinical and Counseling Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Senior Research Associate, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychological Counseling, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry — Branch of The Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2878-9843, e-mail: olgapugovkina@yandex.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 2111
Previous month: 12
Current month: 0

Downloads

Total: 901
Previous month: 12
Current month: 0