Clinical-Psychological and Socio-Demographic Factors of Suicidal Behavior and the Risk of its Chronicity: a Review of Studies

486

Abstract

Relevance. The article presents an overview of studies on clinical, psychological and socio–demographic factors of suicidal behavior and the risk of its chronicity. According to the WHO, 800,000 people die each year by suicide, and many others seek help from medical centers after a suicide attempt. Suicide and suicide attempts are a medical, social and psychological problem. Purpose of the study. Evaluation of the role of various factors in the chronification of suicidal behavior and an increase in its risk. Results. According to numerous studies, most often repeated suicide attempts are made by people with borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders, often in combination with depressive and anxiety symptoms. The motives for suicide in this group of patients may be emotional regulation, coping with dissociation, stress, and more often do not contain the desire to die. This group of patients tend to self-cut in the limbs or attempt self-poisoning. A distinctive feature of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia, severe depression and bipolar disorder is the intention to die, combined with more severe methods of self-harm, in contrast to patients with personality disorders. The risk of chronification of suicidal behavior is higher in people of working age who have experience in the use of psychoactive substances, low social status and wealth, and the unemployed. This group of patients needs to be provided with medical, psycho-social assistance, since without treatment and psychological support, the risk of chronification of suicidal behavior, an increase in symptoms of depression and the completion of suicide increases. Conclusions. Chronic suicidal behavior requires active interdisciplinary team work with patients based on a biopsychosocial model already at the stage of the first hospital admission after a suicide attempt. It is important to take into account the specifics and characteristics of suicidal behavior, work styles may differ depending on the diagnoses, age and motives of suicidal behavior.

General Information

Keywords: suicidal behavior, repeated suicide attempts, chronic suicidal behavior, borderline personality disorder, clinical and psychological factors, sociodemographic factors

Journal rubric: Research Reviews

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp.2023310101

Received: 10.11.2022

Accepted:

For citation: Subotich M.I. Clinical-Psychological and Socio-Demographic Factors of Suicidal Behavior and the Risk of its Chronicity: a Review of Studies. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2023. Vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 9–30. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2023310101. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

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Information About the Authors

Mariya I. Subotich, Junior Researcher, Department of Crisis Conditions and Psychosomatic Disorders, N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5138-3107, e-mail: psysklif@gmail.com

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