Development and Analysis of Psychometric Properties of a New Russian Version of the Adverse Childhood Experience — International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ)



Background. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) is one of the most important risk factors for mental and somatic disorders and needs to be considered and evaluated in clinical and research practice. The aim of this study was to develop, adapt and validate the new Russian version of ACE-IQ. Methods. A total of 123 people (88 women, Me = 25 years) were included, of which about a half (n = 68) of the sample were patients with depression, the rest of the participants had no psychiatric diagnoses based on the results of the diagnostic interview. Results. ACE-IQ showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.801). A six–factor structure of the questionnaire was identified («Sexual abuse», «Family violence», «Violence outside the family», «Mental disorders and substance abuse in the family», «Dysfunctional family factors», «Social Cataclysms»). Conclusions. We developed, adapted and validated the new Russian–language version of the ACE-IQ, retaining the structure and semantic equivalence of the original version of the questionnaire. Although confirmation of factor structure in other samples is needed, our data allows to recommend the new Russian version of the ACE-IQ for use in clinical and research practice.

General Information

Keywords: adverse childhood experiences, childhood trauma, validation, Adverse Childhood Experiences — International Questionnaire, ACE-IQ

Journal rubric: Testing and Validating Instruments

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Science Foundation (RSF), project number 23-15-00347.

Received: 17.08.2023


For citation: Kibitov A.A., Trusova A.V., Vyshinsky K.V., Mazo G.E., Kibitov A.|O. Development and Analysis of Psychometric Properties of a New Russian Version of the Adverse Childhood Experience — International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2024. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 29–57. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2024320102. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Andrey A. Kibitov, MD, PhD student, Laboratory of Psychopharmacology, Mental Health Research Center, Junior Researcher, Department for the Implementation of Grant Agreements, Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Anna V. Trusova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Division of Medical Psychology and Psychophysiology, St. Petersburg State University, Researcher, Department of Addictions, V.M. Bekhterev National Research Medical Center for Psychiatry and Neurology, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Konstantin V. Vyshinsky, PhD in Medicine, Senior researcher, Department of Organization of Preventive Care in Narcology, National Scientific Center for Narcology — branch of Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Addictions, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Galina E. Mazo, Head of the Institute of Translational Psychiatry, V.M. Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology,, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Alexandr O. Kibitov, Doctor of Medicine, Senior researcher, Genomics of Mental Disorders Department, Bekhterev National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Neurology, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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