Authenticity and Dispositional Forgiveness at Different Stress Levels: A Preliminary Study



The study is aimed at investigating of the relationship between two lower-level personality traits — authenticity and dispositional forgiveness (the ability to forgive). Respondents of the study are experiencing stress of different levels and content. The sample consisted of 140 subjects (16–40 years old, Mage=23,1, SDage=9,0, 66 female), divided by the stress level into following groups: conditionally well-off, everyday stress, and chronic stress. The Russian versions of the Authenticity Scale (Nartova-Bochaver et al., 2021) and the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Adamyan, Nartova-Bochaver, 2020) were used. The higher scores of both authenticity and forgiveness were obtained in respondents with chronic stress, the lowest ones — in respondents with everyday stress, and conditionally well-off respondents had moderately high indicators of both variables. The regression models showed that in the group of chronic stress, authenticity is practically not predicted by forgiveness. For the conditionally well-off and respondents with everyday stress, the most important predictor of authenticity, contributing to an authentic life and protecting from self-alienation, was forgiveness of self. In addition, a second predictor of the same variables, forgiveness of situations, was found in the group of everyday stress. To sum up, the difference in trajectories and possible determinants of positive personality development depending on the level of stress experienced was claimed. The prospects of research and possible application of the results are outlined.

General Information

Keywords: authenticity, forgiveness, resource, buffer, morality

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. Participation of S.K. Nartova-Bochaver was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project 20-18-00262

Received: 28.12.2021


For citation: Nartova-Bochaver S.K., Park V.V. Authenticity and Dispositional Forgiveness at Different Stress Levels: A Preliminary Study [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 141–163. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2022110107. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Arutyunova K.R., Aleksandrov Yu.I. Moral' i sub"ektivnyi opyt [Morality and subjective experience]. Moscow: publ. of Institute of psychology RAS, 2019. 188 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Bol'shunova N.Ya., Ustinova O.A. Psikhologicheskie i sotsiokul'turnye smysly proshcheniya i razvitie sposobnosti k nemu [Psychological and Sociocultural meanings of the modern person]. In M.I. Volovikova, A.L. Zhuravlev, A.V. Yurevich (eds.), Dukhovno-nravstvennye problemy sovremennoi lichnosti=Spiritual and Moral Problems of the Modern Person. Moscow: publ. of Institute of psychology RAS, 2018. Pp. 204—225. (In Russ.)
  3. Bochaver K.A., Danilov A.B., Nartova-Bochaver S.K. et al. Perspektivy salyutogennogo podkhoda k profilaktike sindroma vygoraniya u rossiiskikh vrachei [Future of salutogenic approach to prevention of burnout syndrome in Russian physicians]. Klinicheskaya i spetsial'naya psikhologiya=Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2019, vol. 8, no. 1,
    pp. 58–77. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2019080104 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  4. Vitko Yu.S., Lebedeva A.A. Dukhovnost' kak indikator kachestva zhizni, svyazannogo s psikhicheskim zdorov'em [Spirituality as an indicator of mental health-related quality of life]. Dukhovnost' kak indikator kachestva zhizni, svyazannogo s psikhicheskim zdorov'em Nevrologicheskii vestnik=Neurological Bulletin, 2019, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 88–91. DOI: 10.17816/nb16465 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  5. Dzhozef S. Chto nas ne ubivaet. Novaya psikhologiya posttravmaticheskogo rosta [What doesn't kill us: The new psychology of posttraumatic growth]. Moscow: Kar'era Press, 2015. 352 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Dovzhik L.M., Bochaver K.A. Psikhologiya sportivnoi travmy [Psychology of sport injury]. Moscow: Sport, 2020. 264 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Kononova A.P., Pugovkina O.D. Validizatsiya oprosnika pSklonnost' k proshcheniyu i ustanovki po otnosheniyu k proshcheniyu prostupkov»rna rossiiskoi vyborke [The Validation of Tendency to Forgive and Attitudes Toward Forgiveness Scale on the Russian-Speaking Sample]. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya=Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2018, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 27–45. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2018260403 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  8. Leont'ev D.A., Taranenko O.A., Kalashnikova O.E. Spetsifika osmyslennosti zhizni u razlichnykh grupp krizisnykh patsientov [The specifics of the meaningfulness of life in different groups of crisis patients]. Mir psikhologii=The World of Psychology, 2017, no. 3,
    pp. 190–201. (In Russ.)
  9. Maslou A. Motivatsiya i lichnost' [Motivation and personality]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter SPb, 2008. 400 p. (In Russ.)
  10. Mitina O.V. Al'fa Kronbakha: kogda i zachem ee schitat' [Cronbach's Alpha: when and why to count it]. In N.A. Baturin (ed.), Sovremennaya psikhodiagnostika Rossii. Preodolenie krizisa: sbornik materialov III Vserossiiskoi konferentsii=Psychodiagnostics of Russia. Overcoming the crisis: collection of materials of the III All-Russian Conference. Vol. 1. Chelyabinsk: Izdatel'skii tsentr YuUrGU, 2015, pp. 232–240.
  11. Nartova-Bochaver S.K., Adamyan A.A. Sposobnost' proshchat' i domashnyaya sreda kak aspekty mezhlichnostnogo vzaimodeistviya [Forgiveness and home environment as aspects of interpersonal interaction]. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo=Social Psychology and Society, 2020, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 193–210. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2020110112 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  12. Nartova-Bochaver S.K., Kovaleva M.A. Autentichnost' lichnosti i moral'nye motivy v situatsiyakh povsednevnogo i khronicheskogo stressa [Personal authenticity and moral motives in situations of everyday and chronic stress]. Sposobnosti i mental'nye resursy cheloveka v mire global'nykh peremen=Human Abilities and Mental Resources in the World of Global Change. Мoscow: publ. of Institute of psychology RAS, 2020, pp. 1108–1115. DOI: 10.38098/proc.2020.59.34.001. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  13. Frankl V. Bazovye kontseptsii logoterapii [The basic concepts of logotherapy]. Khar'kov: Gumanitarnyi tsentr Khar'kov, 2022, 104 p. Saint-Petersburg, 2000. (In Russ.).
  14. Akhtar S., Dolan A., Barlow J. Understanding the relationship between state forgiveness and psychological wellbeing: A qualitative study. Journal of Religion and Health, 2017, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 450–463. DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0188-9
  15. Bauer K. To be or not to be authentic. In defense of authenticity as an ethical ideal. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 2017, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 567–580. DOI: 10.1007/ s10677-017-9803-4
  16. Calhoun L.G., Tedeschi R.G. Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice. London: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2014. 385 p.
  17. Chen S., Murphy D. The mediating role of authenticity on mindfulness and well-being: a cross cultural analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2019, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 40–55. DOI: 10.1080/21507686.2018.1556171
  18. Fredrickson B.L. Updated thinking on the positivity ratio. American Psychologist, 2013, vol. 68, pp. 814–822. DOI: 10.1037/a0033584
  19. Gall T.L., Bilodeau C. The role of forgiveness as a coping response to intimate partner stress. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 2021, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1–23. DOI: 10.1080/19349637.2020.1745725
  20. Gino F., Kouchaki M., Galinsky A.D. The moral virtue of authenticity: How inauthenticity produces feelings of immorality and impurity. Psychological Science, 2015, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 983–996. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615575277
  21. Harrison R.V. The person-environment fit model and the study of job stress. In
    T.A. Beehr, R.S. Bhagat (eds.), Human Stress and Cognition in Organizations. New York: Wiley, 1985, pp. 23–55.
  22. Henning T. Why be yourself? Kantian respect and Frankfurtian identification. The Philosophical Quarterly. Vol. 61(245). P. 725–745. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9213.2011.707.x
  23. Homans G.C. Social Behavior Its Elementary Forms. New York: New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1961. 396 p.
  24. Maffly-Kipp J., Flanagan P., Kim J. et al. The role of perceived authenticity in psychological recovery from collective trauma. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2020, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 419–448. DOI: 10.1521/jscp.2020.39.5.419
  25. Maltby J., Day L., Barber L. Forgiveness and mental health variables: Interpreting the relationship using an adaptational-continuum model of personality and coping. Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1629–1641. DOI: 10.1016/ j.paid.2004.02.017
  26. Maltby J., Wood A.M., Day L. et al. The position of authenticity within extant models of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 2012, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 269–273. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.014
  27. Matos M., Duarte C., Duarte J. et al. Cultivating the compassionate self: An exploration of the mechanisms of change in compassionate mind training. Mindfulness, 2022 vol. 13(1), pp. 1–14. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-021-01717-2
  28. Međedović J., Petrović B. Can there be an immoral morality? Dark personality traits as predictors of Moral foundations. Psihologija, 2016, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 185–197. DOI: 10.2298/PSI1602185M
  29. Munns C.A. Religious Belief, Authenticity, Posttraumatic Stress, and Existential Well-Being in Combat Veterans: A Correlation Study. Doctoral dissertation. San Diego, CA: Northcentral University, 2018. URL: 2116b4febff2c04f0b27/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750 (Accessed: 13.03.2021).
  30. Ottiger A.S., Joseph S. From ego-centred to eco-centred: an investigation of the association between authenticity and ecological sensitivity. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 2020, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1–13. DOI: 10.1080/14779757.2020.1846600
  31. Parks-Leduc L., Feldman G., Bardi A. Personality traits and personal values:
    A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2015, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–29. DOI: 10.1177/1088868314538548
  32. Pinto D.G., Maltby J., Wood A.M. Exploring the tripartite model of authenticity within Gray’s approach and inhibition systems and Cloninger’s bio-social model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 2011, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 194–197. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.040
  33. Reed D.E., Lehinger E., Cobos B. et al. Authenticity as a resilience factor against CV-19 threat among those with chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 2021, vol. 12, p. 1438. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643869
  34. Reznichenko S.I., Nartova-Bochaver S.K., Irkhin B.D. Do Authentic People Care about the Environment? A View from Two Paradigms. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2021, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 81–102. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2021.0306
  35. Ryan R.M., LaGuardia J.G., Rawsthorne L.J. Self-complexity and the authenticity of self-aspects: Effects on wellbeing and resilience to stressful events. North American Journal of Psychology, 2005, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 431–448.
  36. Ryan W.S., Ryan R.M. Toward a social psychology of authenticity: Exploring within-person variation in autonomy, congruence, and genuineness using self-determination theory. Review of General Psychology, 2019, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 99–112. DOI: 10.1037/ gpr0000162
  37. Strelan P. The stress-and-coping model of forgiveness: Theory, research, and the potential of dyadic coping. In E.L. Worthington, Jr. N.G. Wade (eds.), Handbook of Forgiveness. London: Routledge, 2020, pp. 63–73. DOI: 10.4324/9781351123341-7
  38. Strohminger N., Knobe J., Newman G. The true self: A psychological concept distinct from the self. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2017, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 551–560. DOI: 10.1177/1745691616689495
  39. Swart E. Values inconsistency between work and home: Evaluating the impact on stress and well-being, and the role that authenticity has to play. Master Thesis. Hamilton, New Zealand: The University of Waikato, 2020. URL: https://researchcommons. (Accessed: 13.03.2021).
  40. Tan C. Mindfulness and morality: Educational insights from Confucius. Journal of Moral Education, 2021, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 356–367. DOI: 10.1080/03057240.2020.1779045
  41. Thompson L.Y., Snyder C.R., Hoffman L. et al. Dispositional forgiveness of self, other, and situations. Journal of Personality, 2005, vol. 73, pp. 313–359. DOI: 10.1111/ j.1467-6494.2005.00311.x.
  42. Tran J.C. Authentic Forgiveness: A Biblical Approach. Carlisle: Langham, 2020. 132 p.
  43. Wenzel M., Okimoto T.G. The varying meaning of forgiveness: Relationship closeness moderates how forgiveness affects feelings of justice. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2012, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 420–431. DOI: 10.1002/EJSP.1850
  44. Wood A.M. Linley P.A., Maltby J. et al. The authentic personality: A theoretical and empirical conceptualization and the development of the Authenticity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2008, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 385–399. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.55.3.385
  45. Zhang J.W., Chen S., Tomova Shakur T.K. et al. A compassionate self is a true self? Self-compassion promotes subjective authenticity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2019, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1323–1337. DOI: 10.1177/0146167218820914

Information About the Authors

Sofya K. Nartova-Bochaver, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the Laboratory for the Psychology of Salutogenic Environment, Department of Psychology, HSE University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Violetta V. Park, researcher, Laboratory of Science and Practical "Psychological Instruments", Domodedovo International Airport, Domodedovo, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 1501
Previous month: 28
Current month: 24


Total: 393
Previous month: 6
Current month: 5