Psychometric Properties of the Russian Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4, 10, 14)



This study was aimed to adapt and analyze the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in its full (PSS-14) and two short versions (PSS-10, PSS-4). Psychometric analysis of the Russian versions of the PSS was performed on a sample of 558 Russian-speaking respondents, including 278 men and 280 women aged 18 to 78 (M=48.10; SD=13.91). The participants completed the Russian versions of the PSS and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The factor validity of the PSS was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which indicated a two-factor structure, including distress factor (direct-item scale) and coping factor (reverse-item scale). Perceived stress scores correlated positively on all versions of the PSS with psychological distress scores on the DASS-21. The internal reliability of the adapted scales was revealed by α-Cronbach’s coefficients, whose values were α=0.841 for PSS-14, α=0.831 for PSS-10, and α=0.703 for PSS-4. The known-groups validity was confirmed by the fact that women scored higher on perceived stress on the PSS-14, PSS-10, and PSS-4. In conclusion, the PSS-10 is preferred for research tasks and the PSS-4 can be used in time-limited testing conditions.

General Information

Keywords: measure, perceived stress, psychological distress, validation, psychometric analysis

Journal rubric: Diagnosis of Personality Disorders and Conditions

Article type: scientific article


Received: 22.01.2023


For citation: Zolotareva A.A. Psychometric Properties of the Russian Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4, 10, 14) [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2023. Vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 18–42. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2023120102. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Alyona A. Zolotareva, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology, Senior Research Fellow at the International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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