Social and Emotional Skills of Student: the Development of the Tool for Monitoring in Secondary School



Measuring the personal aspects of development is a challenge that researchers and practitioners are facing. Despite the fact that the results regarding the socio-emotional development of students are recorded in federal educational standards of Russia, there is neither a theoretical framework suitable for assessing these results, nor re- liable measuring materials suitable for its monitoring assessment. This paper is aimed to develop a monitoring tool to estimate social and emotional skills of secondary-school students. The results of a field test were analysed using Item Response Theory (IRT). Construct validity, reliability, differential item functioning and other characteristics were checked. Psychometric properties of the tool as well as theoretical framework are presented. The tool has good psychometric quality and can be used to assess the development of social and emotional skills of adolescents.

General Information

Keywords: : social and emotional development, skills, Item Response Theory, IRT, psychometrics, secondary school.

Journal rubric: Psychodiagnostics

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Kulikova A.A., Orel E.A. Social and Emotional Skills of Student: the Development of the Tool for Monitoring in Secondary School. Eksperimental'naâ psihologiâ = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2021. Vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 202–216. DOI: 10.17759/exppsy.2021140314. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Kovaleva G.S. Novye zadachi, kotorye stavyat pered naukoi rezul’taty monitoringovykh issledovanii [New tasks for the science made by the results of monitoring researches]. Otechestvennaya i Zarubezhnaya Pedagogika [National and Foreign Pedagogy], 2017, Vol. 2, no. 2(38). (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  2. Orel E.A., Kulikova A.A. Analiz psikhometricheskikh kharakteristik instrumenta otsenki sotsial’no[1]emotsional’nykh navykov v nachal’noi shkole [Psychometric analysis of a tool for social and emotional skills assessment in primary school]. Sovremennaya Zarubezhnaya Psikhologiya [Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology], 2018, Vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 8—17. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2018070301 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  3. Orel E.A., Ponomareva A.A. Patterny sotsial’no-emotsional’nogo razvitiya pervoklassnika na vkhode v shkolu [Patterns of social and emotional development of a first-year student]. Psikhologiya Zhurnal Vysshei Shkoly Ekonomiki [Psychological Journal of Higher School of Economics], 2018, Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 107—127. DOI: 10.17323/1813-8918-2018-1-107-127. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  4. Orel E.A., Kulikova A.A. Novaya teoreticheskaya model’ dlya otsenki sotsial’no-emotsional’nykh navykov v nachal’noi shkole [New theoretical model for social and emotional skills assessment in primary school]. // Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya [Psychological Studies], 2020, Vol. 13, no. 69, pp. 16—29. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  5. Sergienko E.A. Sotsial’no-emotsional’noe razvitie: programma stanovleniya lichnostnogo potentsiala [Elektronnyi resurs] [Socio-emotional development: program of personal potential forming]// Obrazovatel’naya politika [Educational Policy], 2019, Vol. 3, no. 79. URL: (Accessed: 14.04.2020). (In Russ.).
  6. Federal’nyi gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel’nyi standart osnovnogo obshchego obrazovaniya [Federal State Educational Standards of secondary school]. Ministerstvo obrazovaniya i nauki Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Moscow, 2010. 41 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Federal’nyi zakon «Ob obrazovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» N 273-FZ ot 29 dekabrya 2012 goda s izmeneniyami 2019 goda [Elektronnyi resurs] [Federal law “About education” N 273-FZ from 29 of December with changes of 2019]. Ministerstvo prosveshcheniya Rossiiskoi Federatsii, Moscow 2019. URL: (Accessed: 13.02.2020). (In Russ.).
  8. El’konin D.B. K probleme periodizatsii psikhicheskogo razvitiya v detskom vozraste [About the Problem of the Development Periods]. Voprosy Psikhologii [Questions of Psychology], 1971, no. 4, pp. 6—20. (In Russ.).
  9. Barbaranelli C., Caprara G.V., Rabasca A., Pastorelli C. A questionnaire for measuring the Big Five in late childhood. Personality and Individual Differences, 2003. Vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 645—664. DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00051-X
  10. Booth-Kewley S., Vickers R.R. Associations between Major Domains of Personality and Health. Behavior. Journal of Personality, 1994. Vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 281—298. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994. tb00298.x
  11. Carlo G. et al. The interplay of traits and motives on volunteering: agreeableness, extraversion and prosocial value motivation. Personality and Individual Differences, 2005. Vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1293—1305. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.08.012
  12. Duckworth A.L., Yeager D.S. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other Than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes. Educational Research, 2015. Vol. 44, no 4, pp. 237—251. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X15584327
  13. Duff A. et al. The relationship between personality, approach to learning and academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 2004. Vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1907—1920. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.08.020
  14. Durlak J.A. et al. The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 2011. Vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 405—432. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x
  15. Fulmer S.M., Frijters J.C. A Review of Self-Report and Alternative Approaches in the Measurement of Student Motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 2009. Vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 219—246. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-009-9107-x
  16. Furnham A., Monsen J. Personality traits and intelligence predict academic school grades. Learning and Individual Differences, 2009. Vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 28—33. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.02.001
  17. Habashi M.M., Graziano W.G., Hoover A.E. Searching for the Prosocial Personality: A Big Five Approach to Linking Personality and Prosocial Behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2016. Vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1177—1192. DOI: 10.1177/0146167216652859
  18. John O.P., Srivastava S., others. The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 1999. Vol. 2, no. 1999, pp. 102—138.
  19. Kress J.S., Norris J.A., Schoenholz D.A., Elias M.J., Seigle P. Bringing Together Educational Standards and Social and Emotional Learning: Making the Case for Educators. American Journal of Education, 2004. Vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 68—89. DOI:10.1086/424720
  20. Linacre J.M. и др. Optimizing rating scale category effectiveness. Journal of Applied Measurement, 2002. Vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 85—106.
  21. Pancorbo G., Laros, J.A. Validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment (SENNA 1.0) Inventory. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 2017. Vol. 27, no. 68, pp. 339—347. DOI:10.1590/1982-43272768201712.
  22. Poropat A.E. A meta-analysis of adult-rated child personality and academic performance in primary education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2014. Vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 239—252. DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12019
  23. Primi, R., Santos D., John O.P., Fruyt F.D. Development of an inventory assessing social and emotional skills in Brazilian youth. European Journal of Psychological Assessment., 2016. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 5—16. DOI:10.1027/1015-5759/a000343.
  24. Sirois F.M., Hirsch J.K. Big Five traits, affect balance and health behaviors: A self-regulation resource perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 2015. Vol. 87, pp. 59—64. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.031
  25. Skills for social progress: The power of social and emotional skills / Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2015. DOI: 10.1787/9789264226159-en
  26. Slobodskaya H.R., Akhmetova O.A. Personality development and problem behavior in Russian children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2010. Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 441—451.
  27. Soto C.J. et al. The developmental psychometrics of big five self-reports: acquiescence, factor structure, coherence, and differentiation from ages 10 to 20. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2008. Vol. 94, no. 4, 718 p. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.4.718
  28. The Positive Impact of Social and Emotional Learning for Kindergarten to Eighth-Grade Students — Findings from Three Scientific Reviews [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL:[1]impact-of-social-and-emotional-learning-for-kindergarten-to-eighth-grade-students-findings-from-three[1]scientific-reviews/ (Accessed: 13.02.2020).
  29. Webb N.L. Criteria for Alignment of Expectations and Assessments in Mathematics and Science Education. Research Monograph No. 6. ERIC, 1997

Information About the Authors

Alena A. Kulikova, Research Associate, Center of Psychometrics and Measurement in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Ekaterina A. Orel, PhD in Psychology, Head of Laboratory for Competency Modelling and Assessment in Higher Education in Center of Psychometrics and Measurements in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 511
Previous month: 8
Current month: 0


Total: 230
Previous month: 6
Current month: 0