Other Race Effect: Theoretical Concepts, Research Tools, Experimental Data

339

Abstract

The results of a literature review on the effect of other races are presented. The studies are presented that demonstrate the rich phenomenology of the features of perception, recognition and memorization of the faces of one’s own and other racial groups. The main models explaining the occurrence of the effect of the other race are given.

General Information

Keywords: other race effect, face perception, face memory, face recognition, discriminatory task, contact hypothesis, perceptual experience

Journal rubric: Face Science

Article type: review article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/exppsy.2021140408

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number № 19-113-50341 "Expansion".

Received: 14.06.2020

Accepted:

For citation: Ananyeva K.I. Other Race Effect: Theoretical Concepts, Research Tools, Experimental Data. Eksperimental'naâ psihologiâ = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2021. Vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 142–163. DOI: 10.17759/exppsy.2021140408. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Ananyeva K.I., Barabanschikov V.A., Zhegallo A.V. Kategorial'nost' vospriyatiya vyrazheniy lits [The categorical perception of facial expressions] // Vestnik RUDN [Bulletin of the RUDN University], 2008, № 2, P. 20—28. (In Russ.).
  2. Ananyeva K. I., Demidov A. A., Diveev D.A. Vospriyatiye det’mi lits raznykh rasovykh grupp: effekt vozrasta [Perception by children of persons of different racial groups: the effect of age] // Litso cheloveka v kontekstakh prirody, tekhnologiy i kul’tury [Human face in the contexts of nature, technology and culture] / Otv. red. K.I. Ananyeva, V.A. Barabanschikov, A.A. Demidov. — M.: Moskovskiy institut psikhoanaliza/ Kogito-Tsentr, 2020—2021. 190—204. (In Russ.).
  3. Basyul I.A., Demidov A.A., Diveev D.A. Zakonomernosti okulomotornoy aktivnosti predstaviteley russkogo i tuvisnkogo etnosov pri otsenke pertseptivnogo doveriya po vyrazheniyam lits [Regularities of oculomotor activity of representatives of the Russian and Tuvinian ethnic groups in assessing perceptual trust by facial expressions] // Eksperimental’naya psikhologiya [Experimental Psychology]. T. 10. № 4. P. 148—162. (In Russ.).
  4. Kharitonov A.N., Anan’yeva K.I. Raspoznavaniye litsa i effekt «drugoy rasy» [Face recognition and the effect of “other race”/ Litso cheloveka kak sredstvo obshcheniya: mezhdistsiplinarnyy podkhod [Human face as a means of communication: an interdisciplinary approach] // Otv. red. V.A. Barabanshchikov, A.A. Demidov, D.A. Diveyev M.: Kogito-Tsentr; Izd-vo «Institut psikhologii RAN», 2012. 145—160. (In Russ.).
  5. Allport G.W. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus BooksAllport, 1979.
  6. Anthony T., Cooper C., Mullen B. Cross-racial facial identification: a social cognitive integration // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1992, 18, 296—301.
  7. Ayuk R.E. Cross-racial identification of transformed, untransformed and mixed-race faces // International Journal of Psychology. 1991, 25, 509—527
  8. Beale J.M., Keil F.C. Categorical effects in the perception of faces // Cognition, 1995, 57, 217—239.
  9. Berry S.B., McArthur L.Z. Perceiving character in faces: The impact of age-related craniofacial changes on social perception // Psychological Bulletin, 1986, 100, 3—18.
  10. Blanz V., Vetter T. A Morphable Model for the Synthesis of 3D Faces SIGGRAPH’99 Conference Proceedings, 1999. 187—194.
  11. Bothwell R.K., Brigham J.C., Malpass R.S. Cross-racial identifications // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1989, 15, 19—25.
  12. Brigham J.C., Maass A., Snyder L.D., Spaulding K. Accuracy of eyewitness identifications in a field setting // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1982, 42, 673—680.
  13. Burt M.D., Perrett D.T. Perception of age in adult caucasian male faces: Computer graphic manipulation of shape and color information // Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1995, Series B 259, 137—143.
  14. Caldara R., Abdi H. Simulating the ‘other-race’ effect with autoassociative neural networks: further evidence in favor of the face-space model / Perception, 2006. 35. P. 659—670.
  15. Caldara R., Rossion B., Bovet P., Hauert C.-A. Event-related potentials and time course of the ‘other-race’ face classification advantage / NeuroReport, 2004. 15. P. 905—910. DOI: 10.1097/01. wnr.0000119729.93564.3e.
  16. Calder A.J., Young A.W., Perrett D.I., Etcoff N., Rowland D. Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions. Visual Cognition, 1996, 3, 81—117.
  17. Chance J., Turner A., Goldstein A. Development of differential recognition for own-and other-race faces / Journal of Psychology, 1982. 112 (1). P. 29—37.
  18. Chance J.E., Goldstein A.G., McBride L. Differential experience and recognition memory for faces // The Journal of Social Psychology. 1975, 97, 243—253.
  19. Chiroro P., Valentine T. An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own-race advantage in face recognition // The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1996, 48, 879—894.
  20. Cook S.W. Interpersonal and attitudinal outcomes in cooperating interracial groups // Journal of Research and Development in Education, 1978, 12, 97—113.
  21. Crookes K, Hayward W., Favelle S. No own-race advantage for holistic face processing in Chinese participants / Vision Sciences Society, 2011. 56.304. P. 275—276.
  22. Cross J.F., Cross J., Daly J. Sex, race, age and beauty as factors in recognition of faces // Perception and Psychophysics, 1971, 10, 393—396.
  23. Cunningham W.A., Raye C.L., Johnson M.K. Implicit and Explicit Evaluation: fMRI Correlates of Valence, Emotional Intensity, and Control in the Processing of Attitudes / Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2004. 16. No.10. P. 1717—1729.
  24. Dehon H., Bredart S. An «other-race» effect in age estimation from faces // Perception, 2001. 30. P. 1107—1113.
  25. Devine P.G., Malpass R.S. Orienting strategies in differential face recognition // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1985, 11, 33—40.
  26. Ellis H.D., Deregowski J.B. Within-race and between-race recognition of transformed and untransformed faces // American Journal of Psychology, 1981, 94, 27—35
  27. Etcoff N.L., Magee J.J. Categorical perception of facial expressions. // Cognition, 1992, No. 44, P. 281—295.
  28. Farah M.J., Wilson K.D., Drain H.M., Tanaka J.R. The inverted inversion effect in prosopagnosia: evidence for mandatory, face-specific processing mechanism. Vision Research, 1995, 35, 2089—2093.
  29. Feingold G. The influence of environment on identification of persons and things / Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1914, Vol. 5, No.1. P. 39—51.
  30. Goldinger S.D., Yi He, Papesh M.H. Deficits in Cross-Race Face Learning: Insights From Eye Movements and Pupillometry / Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2009. 35, No. 5. P. 1105—1122.
  31. Hill H., Schyns P.G., Akamatsu S. Information and viewpoint dependence in face recognition // Cognition. Vol. 62. P. 201—222. DOI: 10.1016/S0010-0277(96)00785-8.
  32. Hirose Y., Hancock P.J.B. Equally attending but still not seeing: An eye-tracking study of change detection in own- and other-race faces // Visual Cognition, 2007, Vol. 15. 6. DOI: 10.1080/13506280601069578
  33. Kelly D.J., Miellet S., Caldara R. Culture shapes eye movements for visually homogeneous objects // Frontiers in Psychology, 2010, 1, 6. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00006
  34. Kelly D.J., Quinn P.C., Slater A.M., Lee K., Gibson A., Smith M., Ge L.,Pascalis O. Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces / Developmental Science, 2005. 8, No.6: F31—F36. DOI:10.1111/ j.1467-7687.2005.0434a.x.
  35. Levin D. Race as a visual feature: Using visual search and perceptual discrimination tasks to understand face categories and the cross-race recognition deficit / Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2000. 129 (4). P. 559—574.
  36. Levin D.T., Angelone B.L. Categorical perception of race // Perception, 2002, 31(5), 567—578.
  37. Lindsay D. Stephen, Jack P.C., Christian M.A. Other-Race Face Perception / Journal of Applied Psychology,1991. 76, No. 4. P. 587—589.
  38. Lingyun W., Jianhu W., Xiaodonga Z., Dab T., Yalin Y., Chenggang C., Tianhu F., Fan Z. Studies on the extracting technical conditions of inulinfrom Jerusalem artichoke tubers // Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, Vol. 79, P. 1087—1093.
  39. Luce T.S. The role of experience in inter-racial recognition // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1974. 1, No. 1. P.39—41. https://DOI.org/10.1177/014616727400100114
  40. MacLin O.H., Malpass R.S. Racial categorization of faces: The ambiguous race face effect. // Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2001, Vol. 7, No. 1, P. 98—118. https://DOI.org/10.1037/1076-8971.7.1.98
  41. Malpass R.S. Training in face recognition / in Perceiving and Remembering Faces / Eds. G. Davies, H. Ellis, J. Shepherd. London: Academic Press, 1981, P. 271—285.
  42. Malpass R.S., Kravitz J. Recognition for faces of own and other race / Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1969. 13, No. 4. P. 330—334.
  43. Malpass R.S., Lavigueur H., Weldon D.E. Verbal and visual training in face recognition // Perception and Psychophysics, 1973, 14, 285—292.
  44. Meissner C.A., Brigham J.C. Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review // Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 2001, 7, 3—35.
  45. Michel C., Rossion B., Han J., Chung C., Caldara R. Holistic processing is finely tuned for faces of one’s own race. Psychological Science, 2006, 17, 608—615.
  46. Michel C., Rossion B., Hayward W., Buelthof I., Vuong Q. The role of surface and shape information in the other race face effect / Journal of Vision, 2007. 7, No. 9. A7.107. DOI:10.1167/7.9.7.
  47. Montepare J.M., Opeyo A. The relative salience of physiognomic cues in differentiating faces: a methodological tool // Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 2002, 26, 43—59.
  48. Ng W., Lindsay R.C.L. CR facial recognition: Failure of the contact hypothesis // Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology, 1994, 25, 217—232.
  49. O’Toole A.J., Abdi H., Deffenbacher K.A., Valentin D. A perceptual learning theory of the information in faces // Cognitive and Computational Aspects of Face Processing / Ed. T. Valentine. London: Routledge. 1995. P.159—182.
  50. O’Toole A.J., Deffenbacher K.A., Valentin D., Abdi H. Structural aspects of face recognition and the other-race effect’’ Memory and Cognition, 1994, 22, 208—224.
  51. O’Toole A.J., Peterson J., Deffenbacher K.A. An `other-race effect’ for categorizing faces by sex // Perception, 1996, 25, 669—676
  52. O’Toole A.J., Vetter T., Blanz V. To what extent do unique parts influence recognition across changes in viewpoint? / Vision Research, 1999. 39. P. 3145—3155.
  53. Palermo R., Rhodes G. The influence of divided attention on holistic face perception / Cognition. Vol. 82, No. 3. P. 225—257.
  54. Papesh M.H., Goldinger S.D. Deficits in Other-Race Face Recognition: No Evidence for Encoding-Based Effects / Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. Vol. 63, No. 4. P. 253—262. DOI: 10.1037/ a0015802
  55. Pettigrew T.F., Tropp L. Does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Recent meta-analytic findings / Reducing prejudice and discrimination / Eds. E. Oskamp. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2000. P. 93—114.
  56. Pezdek K., Blandon-Gitlin I., Moore C. Children’s face recognition memory: more evidence for the cross-race effect // Journal of Applied Psychology, 2003, 88, 760—763.
  57. Pittenger J.B., Shaw R.E. Aging faces as viscalelastic events: Implications for a theory of non-rigid shape perception // Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1975, 1, 374—382
  58. Richeson J.A., Todd A.R., Trawalter S., Baird A.A. Eye-Gaze Direction Modulates Race-Related Amygdala Activity / Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Vol. 11, No. 2. P. 235—248.
  59. Richler J.J., Tanaka J.W., Brown D.D., Gauthier I. Why does selective attention to parts fail in face processing? / Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 34(6), Nov. 2008. P. 1356—1368. DOI: 10.1037/a0013080.
  60. Sangrioli S., de Schonen S. Recognition of own-race and other-race faces by threemonth-old infants // Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2004, 45, 1219—1227.
  61. Shapiro P., Penrod S. Meta-analysis of face identification studies / Psychological Bulletin, 1986, No. 100. 139—156.
  62. Shepherd J.W., Deregowski J.B., Ellis H.D. A cross-cultural study of recognition memory for face // International Journal of Psychology. 1974, 9, 205—211
  63. Shriver E., Young S., Hugenberg K., Bernstein M., Lanter J. Class, race, and the face. Social context modulates the cross-race effect in face recognition // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2008, Vol. 34, P. 260—278.
  64. Slone A.E., Brigham J.C., Meissner C.A. Social and cognitive factors affecting the own-race bias in whites // Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2000, 22, 71—84
  65. Tanaka J., Farah M.J. Parts and wholes in face recognition / Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1993. 46A. P. 225—245.
  66. Tanaka J.W., Kiefer M., Bukach C.M. A holistic account of the ownrace efect in face recognition: Evidence from a cross-cultural study // Cognition, 2004, Vol. 93, No. 1, https://DOI.org/10.1016/j. cognition.2003.09.011
  67. Valentine T. A unified account of the effects of distinctiveness, inversion and race in face recognition // The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1991. A 43. 161—204.
  68. Valentine T., Endo M. Towards an exemplar model of face processing: The effects of race and distinctiveness // The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 1992, Vol. 44, No4, P. 671—703.
  69. Vizioli L., Rousselet G.A., Caldara R. Neural repetition suppression to identity is abolished by other-race faces / www.pnas.org/cgi/DOI/10.1073/pnas.1005751107.
  70. Voci A., Hewstone M. Intergroup contact and prejudice toward immigrants in Italy: the mediational role of anxiety and the moderational role of group salience // Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2003, 6, 37—54.
  71. Walker P.M., Hewstone M. A Perceptual Discrimination Investigation of the Own-Race Effect and Intergroup Experience // Applied cognitive psychology, 2006. 20. P. 461—475. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1191
  72. Wells G.L., Olson E. Eyewitness identification // Annual Review of Psychology, 2003, 54, 277—295.
  73. Wheeler A., Anzures G., Quinn P.C., Pascalis O., Omrin D.S., Lee K. Caucasian Infants Scan Own- and Other-Race Faces Differently / PLoS ONE. Volume 6, Issue 4, April 2011, e18621.
  74. Wright D.B., Boyd C.E., Tredoux C.G. A field study of own-race advantage in South Africa and England // Psychology, Public Policy & Law, 2001, Vol. 7, P. 119—133.

Information About the Authors

Kristina I. Ananyeva, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Research Fellow, Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis (Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis), Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1666-3269, e-mail: ananyevaki@ipran.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 517
Previous month: 16
Current month: 23

Downloads

Total: 339
Previous month: 12
Current month: 8