Executive function during typing on computer



In recent decades, computer typing has become one of the fundamental tools for personal communication in everyday life. Typing is a multi-level hierarchical process that involves a large number of cognitive and physiological functions. Executive functions (EF), such as working memory and executive control, actively influence the inhibitory and activation processes during typing. Using the example of the work of the IF, one can observe the hierarchical organization of the central and peripheral parts of the nervous system during typing. However, there are not so many studies aimed at studying the neurophysiology of typing, and there were no works devoted to the study of EF in typing. In this regard, this article discusses the potential possibilities of studying EF by typing on a computer and provides examples of experiments and models that can be used in such studies. The article also describes the main psychophysiological studies in which typing was involved and a review of methods for studying and analyzing typing was conducted.

General Information

Keywords: This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project № 20-313-90046\20 «Psychophysiological models of written speech during typing»).

Journal rubric: Labour Psychology and Engineering Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/jmfp.2022110310

Funding. The author is grateful for the help in editing the article of the scientific supervisor Grigorenko E.L. and Sukmanova A.A.

Acknowledgements. The author is grateful for the help in editing the article of the scientific supervisor Grigorenko E.L. and Sukmanova A.A.

For citation: Momotenko D.A. Executive function during typing on computer [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 105–113. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2022110310. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Sun L., Feng Z., Chen B., Lu N. A contralateral channel guided model for EEG based motor imagery classification. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, 2018. Vol. 41, pp. 1—9. DOI:10.1016/j.bspc.2017.10.012
  2. Baggetta P., Alexander P. A. Conceptualization and operationalization of executive function. Mind, Brain, and Education, 2016. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 10—33. DOI:10.1111/mbe.12100
  3. Kuanar S., Athitsos V., Pradhan N., Mishra A., Rao K. R. Cognitive analysis of working memory load from EEG, by a deep recurrent neural network. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP): Calgary, 15—20 April 2018. Calgary: IEEE, 2018, pp. 2576—2580. DOI:10.1109/ICASSP.2018.8462243
  4. Zhang X., Yao L., Sheng Q. Z., Kanhere S. S., Gu T., Zhang D. Converting your thoughts to texts: Enabling brain typing via deep feature learning of EEG signals. In 2018 IEEE international conference on pervasive computing and communications (PerCom): Athens, Greece, 19—23 March 2018. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2018, 10 p. DOI:10.1109/PERCOM.2018.8444575
  5. Perera P., Harshani H., Shiratuddin M. F., Wong K. W., Fullarton K. EEG signal analysis of writing and typing between adults with dyslexia and normal controls. International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence, 2018. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 62—67. DOI:10.9781/ijimai.2018.04.005
  6. Yang Y., Shields G. S., Guo C., Liu Y. Executive function performance in obesity and overweight individuals: A metaanalysis and review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2018. Vol. 84, pp. 225—244. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.11.020
  7. Salehinejad M. A., Ghanavati E., Rashid M. H. A., Nitsche M. A. Hot and cold executive functions in the brain: A prefrontal-cingular network. Brain and Neuroscience Advances, 2021. Vol. 5, pp. 1—19. DOI:10.1177/23982128211007769
  8. Śmigasiewicz K., Ambrosi S., Blaye A., Burle B. Inhibiting errors while they are produced: direct evidence for error monitoring and inhibitory control in children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2020. Vol. 41, article ID 100742. 9 p. DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100742
  9. Berlot E., Prichard G., O’Reilly J., Ejaz N., Diedrichsen J. Ipsilateral finger representations in the sensorimotor cortex are driven by active movement processes, not passive sensory input. Journal of neurophysiology, 2019. Vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 418—426. DOI:10.1152/jn.00439.2018
  10. Kalfaoğlu Ç., Stafford T., Milne E. Frontal theta band oscillations predict error correction and posterror slowing in typing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2018. Vol. 44 (1), 21 p. DOI:10.1037/ xhp0000417
  11. Logan G. D., Crump M. J. Hierarchical control of cognitive processes: The case for skilled typewriting. In Ross B. H. (ed.), Psychology of learning and motivation. Burlington: Academic Press, 2011. Vol. 54, pp. 1—27. DOI:10.1016/B978-0- 12-385527-5.00001-2
  12. Miller E. K., Lundqvist M., Bastos A. M. Working Memory 2.0. Neuron, 2018. Vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 463—475. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2018.09.023
  13. García-Marco E., Morera Y., Beltrán D., de Vega M., Herrera E., Sedeño L., Ibáñez A., García A. M. Negation markers inhibit motor routines during typing of manual action verbs. Cognition, 2019. Vol. 182, pp. 286—293. DOI:10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.020
  14. Krueger R., Huang Y., Liu X., Santander T., Weimer W., Leach K. Neurological divide: an fMRI study of prose and code writing. In 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE): Seoul, Republic of Korea, 23—29 May 2020. Seoul: IEEE, 2020, pp. 678—690. DOI:10.1145/3377811.3380348
  15. Scaltritti M., Pinet S., Longcamp M., Alario F. X. On the functional relationship between language and motor processing in typewriting: an EEG study. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 2017. Vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1086—1101. DOI :10.1080/23273798.2017.1283427
  16. Perera H., Shiratuddin M. F., Wong K. W. Review of EEG-based pattern classification frameworks for dyslexia. Brain inform, 2018. Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1—14. DOI:10.1186/s40708-018-0079-9
  17. Soghoyan G., Smetanin N., Lebedev M., Ossadtchi A. Performance Analysis of a Source-Space Low-Density EEGBased Motor Imagery BCI. In Velichkovsky B. M., Balaban P. M., Ushakov V. L. (eds.), 9th International Conference on Cognitive Sciences, Intercognsci: Moscow, Russia, 10—16 October 2020. Ltzebuerg: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021, pp. 687—691. DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-71637-0_79
  18. Pinet S., Nozari N. Electrophysiological correlates of monitoring in typing with and without visual feedback. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2020. Vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 603—620. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_01500
  19. Rumelhart D. E., Norman D. A. Simulating a skilled typist: A study of skilled cognitive motor performance. Cognitive science, 1982. Vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1—36. DOI:10.1207/s15516709cog0601_1
  20. Scaltritti M., Alario F. X., Longcamp M. The scope of planning serial actions during typing. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 2018. Vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1620—1629. DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_01305
  21. Scaltritti M., Dufau S., Grainger J. Stimulus orientation and the first-letter advantage. Acta psychologica, 2018. Vol. 183, pp. 37—42. DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.009
  22. Scaltritti M., Suitner C., Peressotti F. Language and motor processing in reading and typing: Insights from betafrequency band power modulations. Brain and Language, 2020. Vol. 204, article ID 104758. 10 p. DOI:10.1016/j.bandl.2020.104758
  23. Nguyen P., Bui N., Nguyen A., Truong H., Suresh A., Whitlock M., Pham D., Vu T., Dinh T. Tyth-typing on your teeth: Tongue-teeth localization for human-computer interface. In J rg Ott, Falko Dressler et all. (eds.), Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services: Munich, Germany, 2018, June). New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2018, pp. 269—282. DOI:10.1145/3210240.3210322
  24. Qu X., Mei Q., Liu P., Hickey T. Using EEG to distinguish between writing and typing for the same cognitive task. In Frasson C., Bamidis P., Vlamos P. (eds.), International Conference on Brain Function Assessment in Learning: Crete, Greece, 9—11 October 2020. Ltzebuerg: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, pp. 66—74. DOI:10.1007/978- 3-030-60735-7_7
  25. Van der Meer A. L., Van der Weel F. R. Only three fingers write, but the whole brain works: a high-density EEG study showing advantages of drawing over typing for learning. Frontiers in psychology, 2017. Vol. 8, article ID 706. 9 p. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00706
  26. Wang C., Zhang Q. Word frequency effect in written production: Evidence from ERPs and neural oscillations. Psychophysiology, 2021. Vol. 58, no. 5, article ID e13775. 9 p. DOI:10.1111/psyp.13775

Information About the Authors

Darya A. Momotenko, PhD in Psychology, Junior Researcher of the Center for Cognitive Sciences, Sirius University of Science and Technology, Federal territory "Sirius", Russia, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2544-5420, e-mail: daryamomotenko@gmail.com



Total: 369
Previous month: 23
Current month: 21


Total: 126
Previous month: 6
Current month: 1