Adaptation of the State and Trait Energy and Fatigue Scales by P.J. O’Connor in Russia



The paper describes the results of the adaptation of the questionnaire by Patrick J. O’Connor, Ph.D., aimed at diagnosing Mental and Physical State and Trait Energy and Fatigue (Mental and Physical State and Trait Energy and Fatigue Scales, STEF), as well as provides validity evidence of the Russian version of the tool on а sample of students. The scales allow to separately measure physical and mental aspects of energy and fatigue. 220 students aged from 18 to 25 years old took part in the questionnaire adaptation. The process of adaptation included direct and reverse translation, as well as analysis of the factor structure of the questionnaire using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Psychometric characteristics were analyzed using Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory (IRT). The CFA demonstrated that after the adaptation the original four-factor structure of the questionnaire became a three-factor one including energy, physical fatigue and mental fatigue for both scales (state and trait scales). The reliability of the questionnaire scales (Cronbach's Alpha) varies from 0.78 to 0.88. A question about races was excluded from the Russian-language version of the questionnaire due to its irrelevance for the native speakers of Russian. The conducted studies confirm the scales validity. The questionnaire can be used for young people aged from 18 to 25.

General Information

Keywords: physical energy; mental energy; physical fatigue, mental fatigue; a Russian-language adaptation; students

Journal rubric: General Psychology

Article type: scientific article


Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Denis Federiakin, Researcher at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, for advice on presenting the results.

Received: 10.04.2023


For citation: Galasheva E.D., Popovicheva E.S., Talov D.T. Adaptation of the State and Trait Energy and Fatigue Scales by P.J. O’Connor in Russia [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2023. Vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 149–162. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2023120314. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Ekaterina D. Galasheva, PhD student at the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Evgeniya S. Popovicheva, PhD student at the Institute of Education, Visiting Lecturer at the School of Foreign Languages, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Daniil P. Talov, Research intern at the Design and Training Laboratory for Modelling and Evaluation of Competences in Higher Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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