Self-Rated Depression Scales in Chinese Adolescents: a Reliability Analysis



This paper reviews several studies on depressive tendencies among adolescents in some regions of China (Jinan, the capital city of Shandong Province, Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, rural Yueyang County in Hunan Province, inner-city Beijing, and suburban Beijing), and evaluates scientificity of research processes as well as the validity of several depression questionnaires, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II-C), the Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Patient Health Questionnaire 2-item Depression Screen (PHQ-2-C) of adolescents. It also examines the shortcomings of multiple depression questionnaires in assessing depression among teenagers in various regions, as well as the causes behind them, taking into consideration regional differences in economic and educational development. It was concluded that when used with adolescents across China, each of the depression scales produced good results, that the CES-D is more sensitive to gender differences in adolescent depression than the SDS and BDI-II-C.

General Information

Keywords: Depression, Chinese adolescents, CES-D, BDI-II-C, SDS, PHQ-2, Depression Self-Assessment Questionnaires.

Journal rubric: Clinical Psychology

Article type: review article


Acknowledgements. The author is grateful for assistance by Prof. V.V. Selivanov.

Received: 15.02.2023


For citation: Zhang C. Self-Rated Depression Scales in Chinese Adolescents: a Reliability Analysis [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2023. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 134–144. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2023120412. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Chao Zhang, Leading Psychiatrist of the Middle Category, Dunin People’s County Hospital, PhD student, Smolensk State University, China, ORCID:, e-mail:



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