The Value Foundations of Pedagogical Activity: a Comparative Analysis of the Position

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Abstract

The relevance of the research subject is determined by the tendency to implement the axiological approach in education to ensure the creation of a single space for the training of pedagogical personnel. This places a special importance on the issue of establishing a correlation between value expectations from the teaching profession. The aim of the study is to determine the value foundations of pedagogical activity as seen by teachers and learners. The sample of the study comprised 61 pedagogical class pupils and 425 teachers. The adopted methods involved the operationalization of the existing standards (educational and professional) and conceptual content analysis, which made it possible to develop an author’s methodology of explicating and updating values laid down by the educational and professional standards and adapt the MUSTtest for diagnosing values-goals. The results show that learners are mainly selffocused, while teachers give attention to creating conditions for their professional activity. The major values of the teachers include the ability to implement an individual approach to the child and knowledge of developmental technologies. The latter prioritizes knowledge of characteristics and technologies for creating a safe and comfortable educational environment. Teachers and learners attach an approximately equal significance to all values, but they set different personal meaning into them.

General Information

Keywords: pedagogical values, professional activity, value-semantic guidelines, teachers, values, axiology, students of pedagogical classes, schoolchildren

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/pse.2022270104

Funding. The research has been conducted on assignment of Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation № 073-00077-21-02 on scholarly research in “Scientific basis and development of methodology for ensuring consistency of Federal State Educational Standards for general, secondary vocational and higher pedagogical education in order to create a unified educational space for the training of pedagogical personnel” (registry entry no. 730000F. 99.1. BV09AA00006).

Received: 12.08.2021

Accepted:

For citation: Ansimova N.P., Ledovskaya T.V., Solynin N.E. The Value Foundations of Pedagogical Activity: a Comparative Analysis of the Position. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2022. Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 37–51. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2022270104.

Full text

Introduction

The system of pedagogical personnel training sees the promotion of principles of consistency and continuity among its major goals.Their implementation is based on the current trend of using the axiological approach in education which meaning and content are to be determined by value orientations.In Russia the training of the pedagogical personnel is provided at a few interrelated stages: a pedagogical class (pre-professional stage), teacher education college or pedagogical university (professional stage) and advanced training courses (postprofessional stage).At the same time, neither the uniform basis nor the vectors of teacher education continuity have been defined in normative regulations or scientific studies.The current research is based on the idea of ensuring the continuity and consistency of teacher training through the commonality of professional value orientations at all levels of pedagogical education.

The results of our previous research show that value orientations are formed through activity and are based on personal experience, world outlook, educational background, professional requirements, professional norms, and regulations.Regulatory provisions and requirements for teachers serve a crossing point for value formation structures developing in the system of pedagogical education and those evolving as part of a teacher’s individual culture” [5, p.18].This leads us to conclude that educational and professional standards as well as curricula and training programs should be developed with regard to the value framework of the teaching profession.Thus, a teacher’s behavior [9] and their values become a part of the pedagogical practice passing on to the pupils and being determined by the correlation between value expectations from teaching [24].To understand the mechanisms of pedagogical value formation as well as identify the presence of signs of their continuity, one should address the question of value expectations held by learners interested in the teaching career and see whether they are in line with reality, which in its turn requires research into the value orientations of practicing teachers.

Research results suggest that knowledge and experience gained at school are essential for accepting the value and motivational foundations of the teaching profession [15; 23].It is notable that 5 to 30% of school learners become teachers later in life [17; 23].Thus, the provision of the standard educational continuity at various stages of education is an indispensable condition for gradual professional development and establishment of the efficient pedagogical resource.

Literature review shows that teenage learners name personal qualities, specialized knowledge, and teaching skills among the fundamentals of the teaching profession [7; 11].At the same time, there is a gap between the expectations [22] and appreciation of the importance of specialized knowledge for teachers: learners underestimate the significance of this value category for teaching [11]. The image of an ideal teacher built up by learners embraces the following personal, communicative and professional values [4; 13]: the teacher is patient, oriented towards learners’ development, capable of demonstrating authority, intelligent, engaged in scientific research [13], friendly and considerate [6; 13], emotionally stable, flexible, penetrating, scrupulous, etc.[6].The values of achievement, hedonism, independence and stimulation, security and agreeableness are more significant for teenagers at the level of behavior rather than normative ideals.Traditions and power are more important in terms of convictions and beliefs [3].Furthermore, today’s schoolchildren consider education and learning to be basically defined by such value categories as knowledge, complexity, and prospective viability.Notably, teachers share this vision complementing the list with the value of ꞌꞌinterest ꞌꞌ [8].

The major values of pedagogical activity indicated by teachers are time management, work and life balance, searching for the professional aims and meanings, keeping training records and documents, prestige and standing for the teaching profession [18], responsibility, justice and impartiality, understanding of learners, awareness of the learnersꞌ individual and sociocultural differences [14; 25], career aspirations, social contribution [21].

Researchers also observe that the sphere of values is exposed to the impact of the sociocultural situation, which means that the educational environment as well as learnersꞌ psychological security takes center stage in value formation [3].

Current psychological and pedagogical studies pinpoint the need for moving away from the particularistic and superficial approach to value analysis in the context of teacher-learner interaction [25].Thus, we have implemented the system-genetic approach [10] as adapted to the research of the problem under discussion [2] and axiological approach seeing values as the key orientations of teaching.These outline the methodological framework of the research in hand.

Sample and Research Methods

The methods adopted within the given methodological framework involved:

the operationalization of the existing standards (educational and professional) regulating teacher qualification and job description requirements;

conceptual content analysis.

The data obtained enabled us to develop an authorꞌs tool intended to identify the values promoted by the standards in test subjects.It involved three value lists (values-relations, -qualities and -knowledge) of 18 items.Each list contained value orientations related to the following target objects: ꞌꞌthe child as the central priority and value of teaching activity, the environment as a space where the teacher fulfills their tasks, and the teaching profession as a type of activity targeted at performing certain pedagogical functionsꞌꞌ [9, p.12].The diagnostic procedure implied ranking the values in descending order.The control sample comprised 75 people — all university professors and lecturers.In statistical verification of a ranking-based methodology, the question of its psychometric indicators cannot be tackled effectively by using statistical techniques only.It all comes down to the issue of the concept adequacy — that of the theory of values in this case.In other words, the concept validity and conceptual validity of the methodology (i.e., its consistency with the original concept) becomes crucial [1].Based on the research findings, the test-retest reliability, i.e., the ability of the test to produce similar results over time, equaled rt=0,54 where p≤0,01.The statistical difference between the test-retest scores was t=0,332 where p>0,05.The survey questionnaire reliability calculated by applying the Spearman- Brown prediction formula for two halves was


rt = -0,51 in April and rt = -0,64 in May.The test internal consistency was measured by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and equaled α = -1,250.The conceptual validity was tested by the experts of the Curricula Department of Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University (I.G. Kharisova et al.).The comparative analysis showed complete consistency of the survey questionnaire content with the main normative legal documents for the Science Education group of academic programs.

We adapted P.N.Ivanov and E.F.Kolobova’s MUST-test (N.P.Ansimova, T.V. Ledovskaya, N.E.Solynin, I.Y.Tarkhanova, I.G.Kharisova et al.) aimed at identifying an individual set of commitments and obligations (values-goals).The results allow one to compare the objectives-expectations the test subjects have stated about teaching and the ꞌꞌirrational beliefsꞌꞌ.Ours is a more flexible method similar to a projective one in terms of the form and content: the test subjects were entitled to use free verbal expression when describing their values, while the approach to the result processing was similar to the content analysis algorithm used for processing a structured interview.

The mathematical analysis was conducted by using the SPSS 22.0 software.Methods of primary descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and structural analysis were used for the research.

The research was conducted in online environments between March and May 2021.The invitation to take part in the survey was extended via the administrative bodies of the educational institutions informing the prospective participants of the research objective as well as voluntariness and anonymity of participation.Two groups of subjects took part in the survey: 1) 61 pedagogical class pupils from comprehensive schools, the age range being 13 to 18 (M=16,49; SD=1,7); and 2) 425 school teachers, the age ranging from 19 to 70 (M=42,2; SD=12,7).

Research Results

The research allowed us to define and compare the most significant values by pedagogical class pupils and teachers.

Pupils and teachers participating in the survey have shown clear agreement on choosing the three most important values (in bold type).However, the analysis of value intercorrelation matrices allowed us to conclude that the two groups of survey participants do not stand in full solidarity when articulating the meanings of the chosen values.Thus, teachers reveal a negative association of ꞌꞌdevelopment of rules for school / class life through negotiation with learnersꞌꞌ with ꞌꞌtolerance of diversity of the educational process participantsꞌꞌ (r=-0,165; p≤0,01) and ꞌꞌcooperation, professional mentoring and mutual supportꞌꞌ (r=-0,123; p≤0,05), however, it is positively associated with ꞌꞌdevelopment of learnersꞌ self-regulation skillsꞌꞌ (r=0,118; p≤0,05) and knowledge of the ways to achieve such a development (r=0,101; p≤0,05), i.e., it implies the introduction of uniform rules and the necessity to follow the standard pattern established by the teacher.At the same time, for pupils the above value is negatively associated with teachersꞌ professional solidarity (r=-0,292; p≤0,05) and positively associated with the awareness of the ways to develop behavioral skills relevant in the modern sociocultural milieu (r=0,277; p≤0,05), so learners find it crucial that teachers are oriented towards their (learnersꞌ) problems and needs.

The values ranked the lowest and thus classified as deficit type are also different for the two groups of respondents.They are respect for every learner and professional cooperation in the teacher respondent group and encouragement of learnersꞌ initiatives and creation of conditions for developing a learnerꞌs personality potential in the group of pedagogical class pupils.

Thus, teachers and pupils attach an approximately equal significance to values focused on the educational environment and

Table 1

Medium Rank of Value Orientations of the ꞌꞌRelationsꞌꞌ Group

Values-Relations

Pupils

Teachers

Mean rank

Rating position

Mean rank

Rating position

 

Leading by example***

1,7

3

1,5

2

Development of rules for school / class life through negotiation with learners**

1

1

1,4

1

Readiness for interaction with other specialists to help learners overcome difficulties**

2,8

8

3

9

Social significance of a teachers professional activity ***

1

2

1,7

3

Providing learners with individual assistance in mastering educational material*

2,4

5

2,7

6

Feedback in the process of education***

3,2

11

3,4

12

Enrichment of learnersꞌ life experience*

2,9

9

2,2

5

Responsibility for educational outcomes***

2,5

6

2,9

8

Support of parentsꞌ (legal representativesꞌ) pedagogical effort*

2,5

7

2,8

7

Support of learnersꞌ independent, conscious and responsible choice of life values**

3,8

13

3,1

10

Encouragement of learnersꞌ initiatives and development of their self-regulation skills**

4,6

17,5

3,2

11

Professional solidarity***

2,2

4

2

4

Lifelong learning and self-improvement, professional and personal development***

4,6

15,5

4,4

16

Creation of a safe and comfortable educational environment**

3,4

12

3,6

13

Creation of conditions for developing a learnerꞌs personality potential*

4,6

17,5

4

15

Cooperation, professional mentoring and mutual support in the teaching community***

4,6

15,5

5

18

Tolerance of diversity of the educational process participants**

4,2

14

3,7

14

Respect for every learner*

3,2

10

4,4

17

Note: * — ꞌꞌchildꞌꞌ value-goal, ** — ꞌꞌenvironmentꞌꞌ value-goal, *** — ꞌꞌprofessionꞌꞌ value-goal

professional activity.However, it is discouraging to note that values aimed at the child take lower places in the subjective rankings.

The situation repeats for the second group of values (see table 2).

Values related to professional development prospects and methodological expertise gain the lead in the pupilsꞌ and teachersꞌ rankings.However, as it was with the first value cluster, the ideas associated with them are different for the two groups of respondents.The correlation analysis indicated the presence in pupils of a conviction that professional growth aspirations provide for the development in a teacher of the ability to implement an individual approach to each child (r=0,378; p≤0,05), while teachers believe that they help find a personal meaning in their professional activity (r=0,193; p≤0,01).From the pupilsꞌ standpoint, the implementation of various training and education techniques is a condition for teachersꞌ

Table 2

Medium Rank of Value Orientations of the ꞌꞌQualitiesꞌꞌ Group

Values-qualities

Pupils

Teachers

Mean rank

Rating position

Mean rank

Rating position

 

Implementation of various training and education techniques ***

1,9

2

1,3

2

Willingness to devise a career strategy based on the recognition of prospects for a teachers professional growth ***

0,8

1

0,6

1

Provision of an individual approach to each child*

2

4

2,1

6

Ability to help learners in self-determination, self-fulfillment and self-affirmation*

3,1

8

2,4

8

Commitment to take responsibility for their activity***

2,3

7

2,2

7

Aptitude for professional creativity***

2

3

2,9

9

Determination to perceive their professional activity as having a personal meaning***

2,1

6

1,7

3

Ability to interact with other specialists on a child education issues**

2,9

10

3,4

11

Ability to interact with parents (legal representatives) on a child education and upbringing issues**

3,7

14

4,8

17

Ability to control their psychoemotional state***

3,4

13

3,9

13

Ability to motivate learners, engage them in different activities*

4,7

16

4,7

15

Ability to objectively assess learnersꞌ achievements*

3,3

9

4,7

14

Ability to assist learners in organizing self-regulation**

2,9

11

2,0

5

Ability to organize the educational process according to the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standards ***

2,1

5

2,9

10

Ability to devise and implement the program of the educational institution development**

3,3

12

2

4

Ability to design lessons, devise educational activities and programs tailored to the needs of learners and their parents***

5,2

18

3,7

12

Ability to create success situations for learners*

4,3

15

4,8

16

Ability to combine rigor and respect for learners*

5,1

17

4,9

18

better understanding of their pupils (r=0,356; p≤0,05), while teachers consider them as a mean to overcome difficulties in various pedagogical situations (r=0,131; p≤0,01).

The third place is given to the aptitude for professional creativity by the pedagogical class pupils, while teachers here prioritize their determination to perceive professional activity as having a personal meaning.The respondentsꞌ attitude to pedagogical creativity differs significantly (p≤0,01): the pupils see it as an essential quality of a good teacher not bound to the framework of the mandatory standards (notably, they consider the ability to organize the educational process according to the requirements of the educational standards no less important).The teachers in their turn are somewhat skeptical about the necessity of being particularly creative when teaching since it can interfere with the implementation of the development program single and uniform for the educational institution (r=-0,133; p≤0,01) as well as intervene with the scheduled classes and other activities (r=-0,272; p≤0,001).

Teachers and learners proved to be more unanimous in respect to the ranking of knowledge-values: greater significance is attached to the knowledge needed for devising a teacherꞌs career strategy as well as knowledge on the legal and ethical framework for teaching and teaching methods (see table 3).

Table 3

Medium Rank of Value Orientations of the ꞌꞌKnowledgeꞌꞌ Group

Knowledge-values

Pupils

Teachers

Rating position

Mean rank

Rating position

Mean rank

 

Knowledge on the legal and ethical framework for teaching***

1,2

2

0,8

2

Knowledge of teaching methods and awareness of their impact on the learning process***

1,4

3

1,2

3

Knowledge and understanding of their subject ***

2,1

6

1,6

4

Awareness of learnersꞌ individual differences*

2

5

2,7

8

Knowledge-based approach to devising a teacherꞌs career strategy***

1

1

0,7

1

Knowledge-based application of diagnostic and remedial technologies*

1,6

4

2,5

7

Knowledge-based approach to learnersꞌ engagement into different activities (project, research, reflection, etc.)*

3,4

11

3,5

6

Knowledge-based approach to parents (legal representativesꞌ) engagement into their children’s education and upbringing process**

3,3

10

3,8

12

Awareness of ways and means to analyze their professional performance in terms of results and efficiency***

3,2

9

2,8

9

Awareness of ways and means of productive collaboration with all participants of the pedagogical process**

3,6

13

4

14

Knowledge of ways to prevent and correct deviating juvenile behavior **

3,1

8

3,6

11

Knowledge-based approach to the development of teaching skills and professional capacities***

2,8

7

3,2

10

Knowledge-based approach to the development of learnersꞌ self-regulation skills**

4,2

15

1,8

5

Knowledge-based approach to the formation and assessment of educational outcomes*

3,5

12

3,9

13

Knowledge-based approach to the development in learners of behavioral skills relevant in the modern sociocultural milieu*

5,7

18

4,5

16

Knowledge of methods provided for learnersꞌ effective goal-setting, planning and organization of independent activity*

4,3

16

4,5

15

Knowledge of developmental education technologies*

3,8

14

5,3

18

Knowledge of characteristics and technologies to create a safe and comfortable educational environment**

4,8

17

4,6

17

Value interpretation is diverse here as well.The pupils perceive the importance of knowledge on the ways to devise a successful career strategy as an established truth based on the assumption that it is good to build a career (this value does not correlate with any other values in the value structure).For teachers, it is directly related to finding a personal meaning in their professional activity as well as their commitment to take responsibility for their actions (r=0,114; p≤0,05).

Pupils associate knowledge of the legal framework for teaching with the effective organization of learnersꞌ self-regulation (r=0,32; p≤0,05), ability to implement an individual approach (r=0,252; p≤0,05), assistance in learnersꞌ self-determination and self-fulfillment (r=0,26; p≤0,05) and objective assessment (r=0,268; p≤0,05).From the teachersꞌ perspective, it can provide for a proper implementation of training and education techniques (r =0,142; p≤0,01), carving out an effective career (r=0,133; p≤0,01) and strengthening the learnersꞌ motivation (r=0,136; p≤0,01).

The following phase of the empirical study involved estimating the statistical significance of variance in the degree of expression of the values in question (see table 4).

Table 4 demonstrates that pupils have a greater appreciation of the social significance of teaching than teachers themselves (p≤0,05), although this value ranks high in the ratings of both groups of respondents.Moreover, pupils believe that social recognition of teachersꞌ professional activity will create proper conditions for the encouragement of learnersꞌ initiatives and treating every learner with respect.Teachers associate this value with the enhancement of

Table 4

Statistical Significance of Variance between Pupils and Teachers Values

Values

Mann-Whitney U test

P-level

Social significance of a teachersꞌ professional activity

9409

0,000

Encouragement of learnersꞌ initiatives and development of their self-regulation skills

10355,5

0,006

Ability to help learners in self-determination, self-fulfillment and self-affirmation

10654,5

0,021

Aptitude for professional creativity

10060

0,003

Ability to interact with parentsꞌ (legal representatives) on child education and upbringing issues

10611

0,020

Ability to assist learners in organizing self-regulation

11298

0,038

Ability to devise and implement the program of the educational institution development

10847

0,009

Ability to design lessons, devise educational activities and programs tailored to the needs of learners and their parents

10669,5

0,017

Awareness of learnersꞌ individual differences

10661

0,022

Knowledge-based application of diagnostic and remedial technologies

9732

0,001

Knowledge-based approach to the development of learnersꞌ self-regulation skills

8840,5

0,000

Knowledge-based approach to the development in learners of behavioral skills relevant in the modern sociocultural milieu

10513,5

0,013

Knowledge of developmental education technologies

10624

0,018


responsibility for the educational outcomes and objectivity of their assessment as well as tolerance of diversity of the participants in the educational process.

Significant variance is noted for values related to assisting learners in the organization of self-regulation (p≤0.05), devising and implementing the program of the educational institution development, and preparing lessons and educational activities (p≤0,01), to which teachers attach far more importance than pupils.This brings us to the conclusion that from the pupilsꞌ perspective, values-qualities are more of expectations held regarding the skills and capacities every good teacher must have rather than objective requirements to a teacherꞌs professional excellence.

Significant variance observed in respect to a teacher-parent interaction (p≤0,05) is quite alarming as well.Both teachers and pupils attach little importance to this aspect; however, the situation is understandable if not natural only for teenage respondents notable for their profound sense of maturity.The value being ranked the second lowest in the teachersꞌ list only emphasizes that teachers do not see working with parents as their first priority despite the fact that it is deemed one of the most pressing problems of the educational process organization.

From the pupilsꞌ perspective, capacities and skills related to lesson preparation and activity development are the least relevant, which is not surprising since pupils have no teaching experience.Teachers consider the ability to combine rigor and respect for learners as the least important.

Significant variance noted for such values as the awareness of learnersꞌ individual differences (p≤0,05) and the knowledge-based application of diagnostic and remedial technologies (p≤0,01) cannot be neglected either.The pupils clearly recognize the important role these values play in the educational process, thereby highlighting their discontent with the current situation in education.

Pupils do not regard the knowledge on behavioral skills required by the modern sociocultural milieu as particularly important, which should be taken as an indication of their having no expectations from teachers being able to give them any relevant or useful knowledge in this sphere.Teachers consider knowledge of developmental education technologies as having little significance.We tend to link it to the lack of appreciation for the value of a childꞌs personality development rather than associate it with the excellent command of such technologies teachers generally have.

The final phase of the statistical processing involved conducting the structure-function analysis of the results following the method developed by V.N.Druzhinin, A.V. Karpov and repeatedly tested in researches done within the framework of the systemogenesis of activity (V.D.Shadrikov, V.N.Druzhinin, A.V.Karpov, V.A.Mazilov, G.A.Suvorova, A.A.Karpov, N.V.Nizhegorodtseva, N.P. Ansimova, M.M.Kashapov et al.) [2].The calculation of the structural weight of the components was made by using figures obtained from counting the number of links each value has with the other values of the structure modified by the correction factor (links significant at р≤0,001 were estimated as having the weighting factor of 3 (points), links significant at р≤0,01 were estimated as having the weighting factor of 2, links significant at р≤0,05 were estimated as having the weighting factor of 1).Values with the greatest weight form the internal frame of the structure serving the basis for the development and compensation of other values.The structural analysis thus allowed us to define the system-forming values for each group of respondents.For pupils it is the ability to implement an individual approach to the child (structural weight 14) and the knowledge of developmental technologies (structural weight 14).For teachers it is the knowledge of characteristics and technologies for creating a safe and comfortable educational environment (structural weight 38), which indicates that pupils are mainly self-focused, while teachers channel their attention to creating conditions for their professional activity.

Discussion

The results obtained by our research group correlate with those published by other authors, including international teams.They claim that there is a discrepancy in the perception of teaching outcomes held by teachers and learners [20].Values centered around the child rank the lowest as far as the teachersꞌ opinion is concerned.

It is worth noting that teachers reveal a tendency to replace actual values with those declared.Thus, stressing the importance of values related to the enrichment of learnersꞌ life experience, provision of an individual approach and individual assistance in mastering the educational material and support of the pedagogical effort of learnersꞌ parents (legal representatives), teachers tend to underestimate the knowledge of developmental education technologies and methods of effective goal-setting, independent activity planning and organization provided for learners.Such values as respect for all learners, the ability to create success situations for them, awareness of the ways and means of productive collaboration with all participants of the pedagogical process, including parents as well as ability to motivate learners in their activities are held in low esteem too.The MUST-test results show that teachers are primarily concerned about low (under their estimates) salaries, uncomfortable working conditions, reluctance of parents to participate in the child upbringing process, low social evaluation of the teaching profession and other problems that have no direct connection with the learnersꞌ development.

These results strongly correlate with those obtained by J.H.E.Assen, F.Meijers, H.Otting and R.F.Poell who point at the discrepancy of the teachersꞌ beliefs and their actual behavior when teaching.According to their study, ꞌꞌtutors prefer learner-oriented beliefs, but in their teacher behavior they show a more traditional approach to teachingꞌꞌ [12].Discrepancies between the declared values, necessary pedagogical actions, and their actual performance were discovered [16].

Conclusion

The research in hand showed that despite the formal similarity of the pedagogical values acclaimed by teachers and pedagogical class pupils the respondents put a different meaning into them.This brings to the forefront the need for consolidating the views of practicing teachers and learners who would like to choose a teaching career in future to acquire mutual understanding.It also emphasizes the relevance of the focused analysis, formation and development of pedagogical values at all stages of teacher professionalization, including the reorganization of pedagogical class work.

Thus, teachers and pupils attach an approximately equal significance to values focused on the educational environment and professional activity.However, values aimed at the child take lower places in the subjective rankings.From the pupilsꞌ perspective, values-qualities are more of expectations for the skills and capacities every good teacher must have rather than objective requirements to a teacherꞌs professional excellence.Values related to professional development prospects and methodological expertise gain the lead in teachersꞌ rankings.Teachers and learners prove to be more unanimous in respect to the ranking of knowledge-values: greater importance is related to the knowledge needed for devising a teacherꞌs career strategy as well as knowledge on the legal and ethical framework for teaching and teaching methods.

In connection with the above, contradiction between the actual values and those declared remains relevant.Therefore, it questions the feasibility of achieving the educational goals established by the State standards and exacerbates the problem of providing teachersꞌ professional and personal growth. The comparative analysis enabled to make an updated list of orientations that can serve the basis for defining the indicators of pedagogical competences and developing a value model of consistent result formation at different stages of pedagogical education.With regard to the previously identified orientations deemed essential for teachers and educators, pedagogical competences were divided into three groups: those focused on (1) a childꞌs harmonious development, (2) a positive environment, and (3) a teacherꞌs professional self-fulfillment [9].The results to be achieved at each stage of pedagogical training are defined through indicators specified with reference to the phasing of the pedagogical competence development and reflecting gradual formation in a prospective educator of certain qualities, attitudes, relations and knowledge.The assessment of the competence formation maturity is planned to be carried out in the near future using diagnostic test materials based on the principle of formative evaluation (dialogue simulators, a pool of cases etc.).The assessment will not only enable to identify the deficiencies developed at the previous stages of a teacherꞌs training and chart ways to correct them but also to create the necessary conditions for strengthening the teacherꞌs motivation for lifelong professional and personal growth.

Thus, the detection of the most significant values as well as those of the deficit type at each stage of a teacherꞌs professionalization may become the key factor for providing education consistency and continuity at various stages of teacher training.Reliance on the actual values of prospective and practicing teachers will enable to attain a higher level of pedagogical education efficacy taking into account that motivation and values are among the major constituents of any competence.Further empirical study of value deficits in teaching is needed to redress the imbalance between the requirements set for the teacher training system and structure of teachersꞌ personal meanings.This will also contribute to the verification of the above hypothesis.The empirical study conducted did not allow the achievement of all the objectives since certain limitations were detected in terms of the anayzed sample.As an example, there were reasons for not taking into account the teaching experience and its possible influence on the teachersꞌ meaning and value structures.To tackle these limitations, a new psychodiagnostic series is planned.Mechanism for the provision of continuity and improvement of educational outcomes through the formation of value orientations has not been fully assessed either, which makes a longitudinal study based at the institutions of secondary vocational training and higher pedagogical education extremely viable since it will allow us to reveal the essence of the phenomenon under study.

References

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Information About the Authors

Nina P. Ansimova, Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of General and Social Psychology, Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University Named After K. D. Ushinsky (YAGPU), Yaroslavl, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0459-6502, e-mail: miklinar@yandex.ru

Tatyana V. Ledovskaya, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Associate Professor Departament of Educational Psychology, Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University named after K. D. Ushinsky, Yaroslavl, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3134-1436, e-mail: karmennnn@yandex.ru

Nikita E. Solynin, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of Educational Psychology, Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University named after K. D. Ushinsky, Yaroslavl, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6896-0479, e-mail: sonik7-39@yandex.ru

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