Contact-Emotion-Prejudice Model: The Role of Colorblindness and Perceived Ethnic Density



Objectives. In this study examined the moderation effect of colorblindness and perceived ethnic density (PED) on the relationship between negative intergroup contact between Russians and four ethnic outgroups (Belarusians, Uzbeks, Chechens, Chinese) and negative intergroup emotions towards them and generalized prejudice. Background. One of the central issues on the current agenda for plural societies is how we shall live together. The ethnic majority usually has a culturally dominant group status and sets the character of intercultural relations in countries. Study design. Cross-sectional one-sample correlation design using data from socio-psychological survey. Participants. 360 ethnic Russians from the Central Federal District of Russia. Measurements. Colorblindness (Rosenthal & Levy, 2012), PED (Jurcik et al., 2015), negative intergroup contact (Reimer et al., 2017) and emotions (Seger et al., 2017), frequency of intergroup contact (Visintin et al., 2017), prejudice (Grigoryev et al., 2018). Results. (1) the negative emotions fully mediated the relationship between the negative contact and generalized prejudice; (2) the negative contact was positively associated with the negative emotions; (3) the negative emotions were positively associated with generalized prejudice; (4) colorblindness moderated the relationship between the negative emotions and generalized prejudice by weakening this relationship excluding PED and including PED but only in the context of high PED, as well as colorblindness was a negative predictor of generalized prejudice directly. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with those obtained previously that colorblindness in the Russian context has particular benefits for harmonizing intergroup relations with culturally distant outgroups.

General Information

Keywords: interethnic ideologies, colorblindness, ethnic density, social ecology, intergroup contact, intergroup emotions, generalized prejudice

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The article was prepared within the framework of the HSE University Basic Research Program

For citation: Grigoryev D.S. Contact-Emotion-Prejudice Model: The Role of Colorblindness and Perceived Ethnic Density. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2020. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 167–184. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2020110311. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


1. Batkhina A.A. Strategii povedeniya v mezhkul’turnom konflikte: obzor zarubezhnykh

issledovanii [Intercultural conflict styles: literature review]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo =

Social Psychology and Society, 2017. Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 45—62. DOI:10.17759/sps.2017080305. (In

Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

2. Batkhina A.A., Lebedeva N.M. Prediktory vybora russkimi strategii povedeniya v

mezhkul’turnom konflikte [Рredictors of behavioral strategy choice among Russians in intercultural

conflict]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2019. Vol. 10, no. 1,

pp. 70—91. DOI:10.17759/sps.2019100105. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

3. Grigor’ev D.S. Analiz vzaimosvyazi mul’tikul’turnoi ideologii Dzh. Berri i razlichnykh printsipov

mezhetnicheskoi kategorizatsii [An analysis of the relationship of multicultural ideology by John

W. Berry and various principles of interethnic categorization]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta.

Seriya 14: Psikhologiya = The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology, 2017, no 4, pp. 54—67.

4. Grigoryev D.S., Batkhina A.A., Dubrov D.I. Assimilyatsionizm, mul’tikul’turalizm, etnicheskiy

dal’tonizm i polikul’turalizm v rossiyskom kontekste [Assimilationism, multiculturalism, colorblindness,

and polyculturalism in the Russian context] Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical

Psychology, 2018. Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 53—65. DOI:10.17759/chp.2018140206. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

5. Apfelbaum E.P., Norton M.I., Sommers S.R. Racial colour blindness: Emergence, practice, and

implications. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2012. Vol. 21, pp. 205—209.

6. Bécares L., Shaw R., Nazroo J., Stafford M., Albor C., Atkin K., … Pickett K. Ethnic density

effects on physical morbidity, mortality, and health behaviors: A systematic review of the literature.

American Journal of Public Health, 2012. Vol. 102, pp. 33—66.

7. Berry J.W. Contexts of acculturation. In D. Sam, J.W. Berry (Eds.). The Cambridge Handbook

of Acculturation Psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 27—42.


8. Berry J.W. Diversity and equity. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 2016. Vol. 23, no. 3,

pp. 413—430.

9. Berry J.W., Kalin R., Taylor D.M. Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Ottawa,

Canada: Minister of State for Multiculturalism, 1976. 359 p.

10. Birman D., Trickett E., Buchanan R.M. A tale of two cities: Replication of a study on the

acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union in a different

community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2005. Vol. 35, pp. 87—101.

11. Brewer M.B., Miller N. Beyond the contact hypothesis: Theoretical perspectives on

desegregation. In N. Miller, M. B. Brewer (Eds.). Groups in Contact: The psychology of desegregation.

New York, NY: Academic Press, 1984, pp. 281—302.

12. Correll J., Park B., Smith J.A. Colorblind and multicultural prejudice reduction strategies in

high-conflict situations. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 2008. Vol. 11, pp. 471—491.

13. Duckitt J., Sibley C.G. Right wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and the

dimensions of generalized prejudice. European Journal of Personality, 2007. Vol. 21, no 2, pp. 113—130.

14. Gaertner S.L., Dovidio J.F. Reducing Intergroup Bias: The Common Iingroup Identity Model.

Hove, England: Psychology Press, 2014. 212 p.

15. Grigoryev D., Fiske S.T., Batkhina A. Mapping ethnic stereotypes and their antecedents in

Russia: The Stereotype Content Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019. Vol. 10, no. 1643, pp. 1—21.

16. Grigoryev D., Jurcik T., Batkhina A., Dubrov D. Toward an ecological perspective of interethnic

ideologies: Moderation effects of ethnic density on relationships between interethnic ideologies and

intergroup bias. Russian Psychological Journal, 2018. Vol. 15, no. 2/1, pp. 117—130.

17. Grigoryev D., van de Vijver F., Batkhina A. Discordance of acculturation attitudes of the host

population and their dealing with immigrants. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research,

2018. Vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 491—509.

18. Guimond S., Crisp R. J., De Oliveira P., Kamiejski R., Kteily N., Kuepper B., … Zick A. Diversity

policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: Predicting prejudice in changing social and

political contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013. Vol. 104, pp. 941—958.

19. Guimond S., de la Sablonniere R., Nugier A. Living in a multicultural world: Intergroup

ideologies and the societal context of intergroup relations. European Review of Social Psychology,

2014. Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 142—188.

20. Hayes A.F. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A

Regression-Based Approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2018. 692 p.

21. Jurcik T., Yakobov E., Solopieieva-Jurcikova L., Ahmed R., Sunohara M., Ryder A.G. Unraveling

ethnic density effects, acculturation and adjustment: The case of Russian-speaking immigrants from

the former Soviet Union. Journal of Community Psychology, 2015. Vol. 43, pp. 628—648.

22. Kauff M., Asbrock F., Wagner U., Pettigrew T.F., Hewstone M., Schäfer S.J., Christ O. (Bad)

feelings about meeting them? Episodic and chronic intergroup emotions associated with positive

and negative intergroup contact as predictors of intergroup behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 2017.

Vol. 8, pp. 1—11.

23. Knowles E.D., Lowery B.S., Hogan C.M., Chow R.M. On the malleability of ideology: Motivated

construals of colour blindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2009. Vol. 96, pp. 857—


24. Laborde C. The culture(s) of the Republic: Nationalism and multiculturalism in French

Republican thought. Political Theory, 2001. Vol. 29, pp. 716—735.

25. Levy S.R., West T.L., Ramirez L. Lay theories and intergroup relations: A social-developmental

perspective. European Review of Social psychology, 2005. Vol. 16, pp. 189—220. DOI:


26. Markus H.R. Pride, prejudice, and ambivalence: Towards a unified theory of race and ethnicity.

American Psychologist, 2008. Vol. 63, pp. 651—670.

27. Pettigrew T.F., Tropp L.R. A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 2006. Vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 751—783.

28. Rattan A., Ambady N. Diversity ideologies and intergroup relations: An examination of

colourblindness and multiculturalism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2013. Vol. 43, pp. 12—21.

29. Reimer N.K., Becker J.C., Benz A., Christ O., Dhont K., Klocke U., … Hewstone M. Intergroup

contact and social change: Implications of negative and positive contact for collective action in

advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2017. Vol. 43,

pp. 121—136.

30. Richeson J.A., Nussbaum R.J. The impact of multiculturalism versus colourblindness on racial

bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2004. Vol. 40, pp. 417—423.

31. Rosenthal L., Levy S.R. The relation between polyculturalism and intergroup attitudes among

racially and ethnically diverse adults. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2012. Vol. 18,

pp. 1—16.

32. Rozich B.C., Kenworthy J.B., Voci A., Hewstone M. What’s past is prologue: Intergroup

emotions and trust as mediating the links between prior intergroup contact and future behavioral

tendencies. TPM — Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 2018. Vol. 25,

pp. 179—191.

33. Schnapper D., Krief P., Peignard E. French immigration and integration policy. A complex

combination. In F. Heckmann, D. Schnapper (Eds.). The integration of immigrants in European

societies: National differences and trends of convergence. Stuttgart, Germany: Lucius & Lucius,

2003, pp. 15—44.

34. Seger C.R., Banerji I., Park S.H., Smith E.R., Mackie D.M. Specific emotions as mediators of

the effect of intergroup contact on prejudice: findings across multiple participant and target groups.

Cognition and Emotion, 2017. Vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 923—936.

35. Shaw R.J., Atkin K., Bécares L., Albor C.B., Stafford M., Kiernan K.E., Nazroo J.Y.,

Wilkinson R.G., Pickett K.E. Impact of ethnic density on adult mental disorders: Narrative review.

British Journal of Psychiatry, 2012. Vol. 201, pp. 11—19.

36. Stafford M., Bécares L., Nazroo J. Objective and perceived ethnic density and health:

111 findings from a UK general population survey. American Journal of Epidemiolog, 2009. Vol. 170,

pp. 484—493.

37. van Assche J., Roets A., Dhont K., van Hiel A. The association between actual and perceived

ethnic diversity: The moderating role of authoritarianism and implications for outgroup threat,

anxiety, and mistrust. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2016. Vol. 46, pp. 807—817.

38. Verkuyten M. Identity and Cultural Diversity: What Social Psychology Can Teach Us.

London, UK: Routledge, 2014. 280 p.

39. Visintin E.P., Voci A., Pagotto L., Hewstone M. Direct, extended, and mass-mediated contact

with immigrants in Italy: Their associations with emotions, prejudice, and humanity perceptions.

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2017. Vol. 47, pp. 175—194.

40. Yogeeswaran K., Verkuyten M., Osborne D., Sibley C.G. “I have a dream” of a colorblind

nation? Examining the relationship between racial colorblindness, system justification, and support

for policies that redress inequalities. Journal of Social Issues, 2018. Vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 282—298.

Information About the Authors

Dmitry S. Grigoryev, PhD in Psychology, Research Fellow, Center of Socio-Cultural Research, HSE University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 509
Previous month: 16
Current month: 12


Total: 192
Previous month: 6
Current month: 9