Methodological Problems of Measuring Values and Value-Oriented Human Behavior

583

Abstract

Objectives. To review studies and consider the advantages and limitations of the current scientific practices for measuring values and value-associated behavior. Background. The methodological problems of measuring values and a value-oriented value-associated behavior reflect a number of difficult questions relevant for modern psychology: 1) the possibility of constructing predictive models of human behavior based on self-report data (survey methods); 2) problems with replication; 3) the use of mathematical tools for data analysis that are adequate to the specifics of the subject of social research. Key contradictions in research on values are connected with the topic of the conditions in which values influence behavior. Another important question is about the suitability of the survey method and, in particular, the ranking for measuring values, taking into account the likelihood that they are nontransitive, poorly aware and context-dependent. Russian-speaking readers are familiar with a very limited set of studies and translated methodological tools nowadays. It makes difficult to study values, taking into account the latest data on the theoretical validity of value models and value-associated behavior and on the reliability and validity of the corresponding diagnostic instruments. Methodology. The paper is a scientific review which includes a comparative analysis of the advantages and limitations of the current scientific practices for measuring values and value-associated behavior. Conclusions. It is shown that the currently widespread questionnaires for the measurement of values are based on the theoretical models, not all of which find empirical confirmation of suitability for use. Sh. Schwartz’s Survey is characterized by fairly good validity and reliability, including cross-cultural validity, but it has drawbacks common to all self-reporting survey methods. In particular, it does not allow to confidently predict the manifestation of the values in behavior. Supplementing survey data with self-reports on behavior, or reconstruction of past experience gives a slightly more complete picture, however such studies are performed in a correlation design, and therefore they do not allow one to draw causal conclusions and build reliable predictive models. The prospect for the study of values is the construction of complex models which include personal and situational variables, and the development of research procedures that measure values both in everyday life situations and in a complex multicultural context. Progress in this area will be impossible without a methodological reflection of the properties of values — transitivity, degree of awareness, universality/specificity. These are ideas which underlie the design features of research procedures and the choice of a data analysis method.

General Information

Keywords: values, value-associated, methodology, measurement of values, Allport-Vernon-Lindsey, M. Rokeach, Sh. Schwartz

Journal rubric: Theoretical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2021120402

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 20-113-50429.

Acknowledgements. The author is grateful for A. Zeldin for the assistance with the preparation of the paper.

Received: 03.03.2021

Accepted:

For citation: Kiselnikova N.V. Methodological Problems of Measuring Values and Value-Oriented Human Behavior. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2021. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 20–33. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2021120402. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Allport G.W., Vernon P.E., Lindzey G. Study of values. Houghton Mifflin, 1960. 12 p.
  2. Baumeister R.F., Vohs K.D., Funder D.C. Psychology as the Science of Self-Reports and Finger Movements: Whatever Happened to Actual Behavior? // Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2007. Vol. 2. № 4. P. 396—403. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00051.x
  3. Bilsky W., Gollan T., Grad H., Mendes Teixeira M.L., Rodriguez Monter M., Schweiger-Gallo I. Computerized Paired Comparison of Values (CPCV): Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Validity of an Alternative Form of Measuring Value Preferences // IACCP 21st International Congress. 2012 July 17-21. Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2012. P. 1—25.
  4. Bilsky W., Janik M., Schwartz S.H. The structural organization of human values-evidence from three rounds of the European social survey (ESS) // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2011. Vol. 42. P. 759—776. DOI:10.1177/0022022110362757
  5. Brown D., Crace R.K. Values in life role choices and outcomes // The Career Development Quarterly. 1996. Vol. 44. Р. 211—223. DOI:10.1002/j.2161-0045.1996.tb00252.x
  6. Buss D.M., Craik K.H. The act frequency approach to personality // Psychological Review. 1983. Vol. 90. Р. 105—126.
  7. Cieciuch J., Schwartz S.H. Values / Virgil Zeigler-Hill & Todd Shackelford (Eds.) // Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. 2017. P. 1—5. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319- 28099-8_1509-1
  8. Coelho G.L.D.H., Hanel P.H.P., Johansen M., Maio G.R. Mapping the structure of human values through conceptual representations // European Journal of Personality. 2019. Vol. 33. P. 34—51. DOI:10.1002/per.2170
  9. Collins P.R., Lee J.A., Sneddon J.N., Döring A.K. Examining the consistency and coherence of values in young children using a new Animated Values Instrument // Personality and Individual Differences. 2017. Vol. 104. P. 279—285. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.024
  10. Connor P.E., Becker B.W. Personal values and management: What do we know and why we dont we know more? // Journal of Management Inquiry. 1994. Vol. 3. P. 67—73. DOI:10.1177/105649269431011
  11. Crick N.R., Dodge K.A. A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment // Psychological Bulletin. 1994. Vol. 115. P. 74—101. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74
  12. Döring A.K., Blauensteiner A., Aryus K., Drögekamp L., Bilsky W. Assessing values at an early age: the picture-based value survey for children (PBVS—C) // Journal of Personality Assessment. 2010. Vol. 92. P. 439—448. DOI:10.1080/00223891.2010.497423
  13. Feather N.T. Values, valences, and course enrolment: Testing the role of personal values within an expectancy value framework // Journal of Educational Psychology. 1988. Vol. 80. P. 381—391. DOI:10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.381
  14. Fischer, R. From Values to Behavior and from Behavior to Values // Values and Behavior. 2017. P. 219—235. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-56352-7_10
  15. Fischer R. Personality, values, culture: an evolutionary approach // Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. DOI:10.1017/9781316091944
  16. Fischer R., Milfont T.L., Gouveia V.V. Does social context affect value structures? Testing the within-country stability of value structures with a functional theory of values // Journal Cross- Cultural Psychology. 2011. Vol. 42. P. 253—270. DOI:10.1177/0022022110396888
  17. Fontaine J.R.J., Poortinga Y.H., Delbeke L., Schwartz S.H. Structural Equivalence of the Values Domain Across Cultures // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2008. Vol. 39(4). P. 345—365. DOI:10.1177/0022022108318112
  18. Gouveia V.V. The motivational nature of human values: evidences of a new typology [in Portuguese] // Estudos Psicologica. 2008. Vol. 8. P. 431—443. DOI:10.1590/S1413- 294X2003000300010
  19. Gouveia V.V. Teoria Funcionalista dos Valores Humanos [Functional theory of Human Values: Fundaments, Applications and Perspectives]. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo, 2008. 47 p.
  20. Gouveia V.V., Milfont T.L., Guerra V.M. Functional theory of human values: testing its content and structure hypotheses // Personality and Individual Differences. 2014. Vol. 60. P. 41—47. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2013.12.012
  21. Gouveia V.V., Milfont T.L., Guerra V.M. The functional theory of human values: from intentional overlook to first acknowledgement — A reply to Schwartz // Personality and Individual Differences. 2014. Vol. 68. P. 250—253. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.03.025
  22. Gouveia V.V., Milfont T.L., Fischer R., Santos W.S. Teoria funcionalista dos valores humanos // Valores Humanos e Gestão: Novas Perspectivas / M.L.M. Teixeira (Ed.). Sao Paulo: Editora Senac, 2008. P. 47—80.
  23. Gouveia V.V., Vione K.C., Milfont T.L., Fischer R. Patterns of value change during the life span: some evidence from a functional approach to values // Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2015. Vol. 41. P. 1276—1290. DOI:10.1177/0146167215594189
  24. Hofstede G.H., Hofstede G.J., Minkov M. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, 3rd Edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2010. 561 p. DOI:10.5860/choice.42-5937
  25. Horstmann K.T., Rauthmann J.F., Sherman R.A. The measurement of situational influences // The SAGE Handbook of Personality and Individual Differences / V. Ziegler-Hill, T.K. Shackelford (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2017. P. 465—-485.
  26. Inglehart R.F. The Silent ReVution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977. 496 p.
  27. Inglehart R.F., Baker W.E. Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values // American Social Review. 2000. Vol. 65. P. 19—51. DOI:10.2307/2657288
  28. John L.K., Loewenstein G., Prelec D. Measuring the prevalence of questionable research practices with incentives for truth telling // Psychological Science. 2012. Vol. 23. № 5. P. 524—532. DOI:10.1177/0956797611430953
  29. Kahneman D., Krueger A.B., Schkade D.A., Schwarz N., Stone A.A. A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method // Science. 2004. Vol. 306. P. 1776—1780. DOI:10.1126/science.1103572
  30. Kopelman R.E., Rovenpor J.L., Guan M. The Study of Values: Construction of the fourth edition // Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2003. Vol. 62. № 2. P. 203—220. DOI:10.1016/S0001- 8791(02)00047-7
  31. Kristiansen C.M., Hotte A.M. Morality and the self: Implications for when and how of value-attitude-behavior relations // The psychology of values / C. Seligman, J.M. Olson, M.P. Zanna (Eds.). The Ontario Symposium. Vol. 8. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996. P. 77—106.
  32. Lee J.A., Soutar G., Louviere J. The best-worst scaling approach: an alternative to Schwartz’s values survey // Journal of Personality Assessment. 2008. Vol. 90. P. 335—347. DOI:10.1080/00223890802107925
  33. Lee J.A., Ye S., Sneddon J.N., Collins P.R., Daniel E. Does the intra-individual structure of values exist in young children? // Personality and Individual Differences. 2017. Vol. 110. P. 125—130. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2017.01.038
  34. Locke E.A. The motivation sequence, the motivation hub, and the motivation core // Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991. Vol. 16. P. 405—414. DOI:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90023-M
  35. Marchi S. de. Computational and mathematical modeling in the social sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 197 p. DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511510588
  36. Maslow A.H. A theory of human motivation // Psychological Review. 1943. Vol. 50. P. 370— 396. DOI:10.1037/h0054346
  37. McClelland D.C. Human motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985. 663 p.
  38. Meglino B.M., Ravlin E.C. Individual values in organizations: concepts, controversies, and research // Journal of Management. 1998. Vol. 24. P. 351—389. DOI:10.1177/014920639802400304
  39. Miles A. The (re)genesis of values // American Sociological Review. 2015. Vol. 80(4). P. 680— 704. DOI:10.1177/0003122415591800
  40. Molenaar P.C.M., Campbell C.G. The new person-specific paradigm in psychology // Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2009. Vol. 18. № 2. P. 112—117. DOI:10.1111/j.1467- 8721.2009.01619.x
  41. Oles P.K., Hermans H.J.M. Allport‐Vernon study of values // Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2010. P. 67—68. DOI:10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0038
  42. Oyserman D. Values, Psychology of // International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015. P. 36—40. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.24030-0
  43. Peng K., Nisbett R.E., Wong N.Y.C. Validity problems comparing values across cultures and possible solutions // Psychological Methods. 2007. Vol. 2. P. 329—344. DOI:10.1037/1082- 989X.2.4.329
  44. Roccas S., Sagiv L. Personal values and behavior: taking the cultural context into account // Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 2010. Vol. 4. № 1. P. 30—41. DOI:10.1111/j.1751- 9004.2009.00234.x
  45. Roccas S., Lilach S., Navon M. Methodological issues in studying personal values // Values and Behaviour: Taking a Cross-Cultural Perspective / S. Roccas, S. Lilach (Eds.). Heidelberg: Springer, 2017. P. 15—50. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-56352-7_2
  46. Rokeach M. The Nature of Human Values. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1973. 438 p.
  47. Rushton J.P., Chrisjohn R.D., Fekken G.C. The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale // Personality and Individual Differences. 1981. Vol. 2. P. 293—302. DOI:10.1016/0191- 8869(81)90084-2
  48. Sagiv L., Roccas S., Cieciuch J., Schwartz S.H. Personal values in human life // Nature Human Behaviour. 2017. Vol. 1. P. 630—639. DOI:10.1038/s41562-017-0185-3
  49. Schwartz S.H. Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries // Advances in Experimental Social Psychology / M. Zanna (Eds.). New York: Academic Press, 1992. Vol. 25. P. 1—65. DOI:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6
  50. Schwartz S.H. Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? // Journal of Social Issues. 1994. Vol. 50. № 4. P. 19—45. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x
  51. Schwartz S.H. Value priorities and behavior: applying a theory of integrated value systems // The psychology of values. The Ontario Symposium / C. Seligman, J.M. Olson, M.P. Zanna (Eds.) Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 1996. Vol. 8. P. 1—24.
  52. Schwartz S.H., Bardi A. Value hierarchies across cultures: taking a similarities perspective // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2001. Vol. 32. № 3. P. 268—290. DOI:10.1177/0022022101032003002
  53. Schwartz S.H., Bilsky W. Toward a universal psychological structure of human values // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987. Vol. 53. № 3. P. 550—562. DOI:10.1037/0022- 3514.53.3.550
  54. Schwartz S.H., Bilsky W. Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: extensions and cross-cultural replications // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990. Vol. 58. № 5. P. 878—891. DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.58.5.878
  55. Schwartz S.H., Boehnke K. Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis // Journal of Research in Personality. 2004. Vol. 38. № 3. P. 230—255. DOI:10.1016/ S0092-6566(03)00069-2
  56. Schwartz S.H., Cieciuch J., Vecchione M., Davidov E., Fischer R., Beierlein C. et al. Refining the theory of basic individual values // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2012. Vol. 103. № 4. P. 663—688. DOI:10.1037/a0029393
  57. Schwartz S.H., Melech G., Lehmann A., Burgess S., Harris M., Owens V. Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2001. Vol. 32. № 5. P. 519—542. DOI:10.1177/0022022101032005001
  58. Spini D. Measurement equivalence of 10 value types from the Schwartz Value Survey across 21 countries // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2003. Vol. 34. № 1. P. 3—23. DOI:10.1177/0022022102239152
  59. Spranger E. Types of men. New York: Stechert-Hafner, 1928. 402 p.
  60. Stanley T.D., Carter E.C., Doucouliagos H. What meta-analyses reveal about the replicability of psychological research // Psychological Bulletin. 2018. Vol. 144. № 12. P. 1325—1346. DOI:10.1037/bul0000169
  61. Thompson B. If statistical significance tests are broken/misused, what practices should supplement or replace them? // Theory and Psychology. 1999. Vol. 9. № 2. P. 165—181. DOI:10.1177/095935439992006
  62. Vacha-Haase T., Nilsson J.E., Reetz D.R., Lance T.S., Thompson B. Reporting practices and APA editorial policies regarding statistical significance and effect size // Theory and Psychology. 2000. Vol. 10. № 3. P. 413—425. DOI:10.1177/0959354300103006
  63. Van Lange P.A.M., De Bruin E.M.N., Otten W., Joireman J.A. Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations: theory and preliminary evidence // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1997. Vol. 73. № 4. P. 733—746. DOI:10.1037/0022- 3514.73.4.733
  64. Vecchione M., Schwartz S., Alessandri G., Döring A.K., Castellani V., Caprara M.G. Stability and change of basic personal values in early adulthood: An 8-year longitudinal study // Journal of Research in Personality. 2016. Vol. 63. P. 111—122. DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.002
  65. Williams R.M.Jr. The concept of values // International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences / D. Sills (Eds.). New York: Macmillan, 1968. P. 283—287.
  66. Williams R.M.Jr. Change and stability in values and value systems: a sociological perspective // Understanding Human Values / M. Rokeach (Eds.). New York: Free Press, 1979. P. 15—46.

Information About the Authors

Natalia V. Kiselnikova, PhD in Psychology, Assistant Professor, Head of Laboratory of Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, FBSSI «Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education», Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0710-4972, e-mail: nv_psy@mail.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 758
Previous month: 19
Current month: 8

Downloads

Total: 583
Previous month: 25
Current month: 11