Factors of Negative Self-Perception of A Migrant in a New Country

399

Abstract

The scale of migration flows in the modern world and their socio-economic, political, and cultural consequences make the study of migration particularly actual. Migration is a multi-step process that contains many psychological aspects, which vary at each stage. Migration begins at the stage when a person considers the alternative of moving to another country. Our study was founded on the idea that the successful adaptation of a migrant to a new life situation and coping with its difficulties is largely determined by the set of pre-migration attitudes and expectations. The study involves 138 people living in Spain, including 108 migrants from Russia and the rest from 25 different countries. The results describe the psychological situation of a migrant, attitude to migration, the motives for moving to another country, the experience of nostalgia, and self-perception in a new life context. The vast majority of Russian-speaking migrants are characterised by a positive attitude towards migration, a significant part of them consider migration as a new experience and an opportunity for self-realization. For a third of Russian-speaking respondents a motivating factor in taking the decision of migration is the interests of close relatives (for foreign respondents, this motivation was mentioned only in 3.6% of cases). The negative self- perception of Russian-speaking migrants in the new country is connected with this motivation (the interests of relatives) and the experienced nostalgia. The crucial factor in a positive or negative self- perception of a migrant is motivation for relocation. A negative self-perception is based on the desire to escape from an unfavorable situation and its problems, and a positive one is based on the desire for change. Therefore, a negative or positive self-awareness of a migrant in a new country is the most important factor for his/her successful integration and psychological well-being in a new country

General Information

Keywords: migration process, attitudes to migration, motivation for migration, positive and negative self-perception

Journal rubric: Empirical and Experimental Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu16.2020.202

For citation: Lupulyak P.V., Grishina N.V. Factors of Negative Self-Perception of A Migrant in a New Country. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2020. Vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 128–141. DOI: 10.21638/spbu16.2020.202. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Grishina N. Existential Psychology. St. Petersburg, Saint-Petersburg State University Press, 2018. (In Russian)
  2. Loizate J.A. Salud mental y migración. El síndrome del inmigrante. Psicología e inmigración. Universidad Pontífica de Salamanca, 2009, pp. 35–64.
  3. Russia is fourth in the list of countries most attractive to migrants. Available at: https://news.un.org/ ru/story/2019/09/1363082 (accessed: 15.02.2020).
  4. Grinberg L., Grinberg R. Migración y exilio. Estudio psicoanalítico. Madrid, Editorial Biblioteca Nueva, 1996.
  5. Frank K., Hou F., Schellenberg G. Life Satisfaction Among Recent Immigrants in Canada: Comparisons to Source-Country and Host-Country Populations. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17 (4), August 2015. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283907844_Life_Satisfaction_Among_Recent_Immigrants_in_Canada_Comparisons_to_Source-Country_and_Host-Country_Populations (accessed: 15.02.2020).
  6. Tabor A. S., Milfont T.L., Ward C. The Migrant Personality Revisited: Individual Differences and International Mobility Intentions. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, September 2015, pp. 89- 95. Available at: https://www.psychology.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/72176-NZJP-Vol-44-No-2_MigrantPersonality.pdf (accessed: 15.02.2020).
  7. Helliwell J.F., Huang H., Wang Sh., Shiplett H. International Migration and World Happiness. World Happiness Report. Chapter: 2. John F.Helliwell, Richard Layard, Jeffrey D. Sachs (eds). United Nations SDSN Publ., pp. 12–43. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323775616_International_ Migration_and_World_Happiness (accessed: 15.02.2020).
  8. Cobb C.L., Branscombe N.R., Meca A., Schwartz S.J., Xie D., Zea M.C., Molina L.E., Martinez C.R.Jr. Toward a Positive Psychology of Immigrants. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14 (4), December 2018. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329483609_Toward_a_Positive_Psychology_of_Immigrants (accessed: 15.02.2020).
  9. Lebedeva N.M. Social psychology of ethnic migrations. Moscow, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology Publ., 1993. (In Russian)
  10. Lebedeva N.M. Ethnic and cross-cultured psychology. Moscow, MAKS Press Publ., 2011. (In Russian)
  11. Pochebut L.G. Cross-cultured and ethnic psychology. St. Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2012. (In Russian)
  12. Soldatova G.U. Psychology of interethnic tension. Moscow, Smysl Publ., 1998. (In Russian)
  13. Chrustaleva N. S. Psychology of migration (social-psychological and personality problems) . Diss. PhD. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State University Press, 1996. (In Russian)
  14. Psychology of crisis and extreme situations: mental trauma and its consequences, ed. by Chrustaleva N. S. St. Petersburg, Saint-Petersburg State University Press, 2014. (In Russian)
  15. Arroyo C. Soy psicóloga de duelo migratorio y estas son las cosas que más afectan a los emigrantes, 20 MAR 2017. Available at: https://verne.elpais.com/verne/2017/03/14/articulo/1489490451_983473.html (accessed: 03.12.2019).
  16. 8 Razones para Emigrar a España. Available at: https://asesoriaparainmigrantes.com/2018/04/18/8- razones-para-emigrar-a-espana/ (accessed: 15.02.2020).

Information About the Authors

Polina V. Lupulyak, Psychologist, MiMarbella Project, Marbella (province Málaga), Spain, e-mail: polinalupuliak@mail.ru

Nataliya V. Grishina, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Department of Personality Psychology, Saint-Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6763-7389, e-mail: n.v.grishina@spbu.ru