The Russian Version of “Core Self-Evaluation Scale”: Psychometric Testing and Prospects of Using



The article presents a theoretical description and psychometric testing of the Russian version of the “Core Self-Evaluation Scale” (CSEs (Ru)). The scale of CSE is an integral indicator that reflects of a personal resources of proactive behavior, as well as a generalized dispositional predictor of job satisfaction and positive self-assessment of the results of activity. The validation and psychometric testing were conducted in several stages, the total number of respondents N=917, who work in Moscow, St Petersburg, Belgorod, and other Russian cities, between the ages of 18 and 60, of which 62% are female and 38% are male. The design of the study included methods: an adapted Russian version of the Core Self-Evaluation scale by Judge et al., 5PFQ as adapted by A.B.Hromov, Generalized self-efficacy scale, Schwarzer, Jerusalem as adapted by V.G.Romek, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Locus of control as adapted by Kseno- fontova, Gallup’s Q12 Employee Engagement Survey. A two-factor structure of the CSEs (Ru) was identified which includes positive and negative core self-evaluation scales. The CSEs (Ru) demonstrated a satisfactory reliability. The validation testing demonstrated significant correlations with self-esteem, level of subjective control, self-efficacy, neuroticism, и engagement. The CSEs (Ru) includes 10 items and has a sufficient preliminary reliability and validity, making it a useful tool when measuring the core self-evaluation of organizations’ staff. Diversities of the negative core self-evaluation level’s strength within respondents of different age and sex were identified. Сore self-evaluation level is important in staffing work teams of different professional specialization as a predictor of proactive behavior and team resilience. Further research could be focused on the proof of the measurement’s reliability and validity when measuring of proactive behavior in teams.

General Information

Keywords: personnel, core self-evaluation scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, neuroticism, self-esteem, work team

Journal rubric: Empirical and Experimental Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The study was sponsored by the Russian Science Foundation, project “The concept of sustainable development of teams in organization” no. 22-28-1222.

For citation: Manichev S.A., Lepekhin N.N., Ilyina O.N. The Russian Version of “Core Self-Evaluation Scale”: Psychometric Testing and Prospects of Using. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2022. Vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 285–308. DOI: 10.21638/spbu16.2022.304. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


Ariani, D.W. (2013). Needs, Core Self-Evaluation, Big Five Personality and Learning Motivation across Gender. UNISBANK International Conference (August 2013), Semarang, Indonesia. Available at: (accessed: 06.06.2022).

Attiq, S., Wahid, S., Javaid, N., Kanwal, M., Shah, H.J. (2017). The impact of employees’ core self-evaluation personality trait, management support, co-worker support on job satisfaction, and innovative work behavior. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 32 (1), 247–271.

Baker, M.K., Kennedy, D.J., Bohle, P.L., Campbell, D., Wiltshire, J.H., Singh, M.A.F. (2011). Core self-evaluation as a predictor of strength training adoption in older adults. Maturitas, 68, 88–93.

Bakker, A.B., de Vries, J.D. (2021). Job demands-resources theory and self-regulation: New explanations and remedies for job burnout. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 34 (1), 1–21.

Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. (2017). Job Demands-Resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 273–285.

Baloch, T., Nadeem, M. S., Rehman, M.Z.U. (2019). Impact of employees Core Self-Evaluations on employee engagement: Moderating role of organizational culture. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 5 (2), 303-314.

Chang, C.-H. (Daisy), Ferris, D.L., Johnson, R.E., Rosen, C.C., Tan, J.A. (2012). Core Self-Evaluations: A Review and Evaluation of the Literature. Journal of Management, 38 (1), 81–128.

Erikson, M. (2007). The meaning of the future: Toward a more specific definition of possible selves. Review of General Psychology, 11 (4), 348–358.

Grant, A.M., Parker, S.K. (2009). Redesigning work design theories: The rise of relational and proactive perspectives. The Academy of Management Annals, 3 (1), 317–375.

Ivanova, T., Leontiev, D., Osin, E., Rasskazova, E., Kosheleva, N. (2018). Contemporary issues in the re- search of personality resources at work. Organizatsionnaia Psikhologiia, 8 (1), 85–121. (In Russian)

Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., Thoresen, C.J. (2002). Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83 (3), 693–710.

Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., Thoresen, C.J. (2003). The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56, 303–331.

Judge, T.A., Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. (2011). Implications of core self-evaluations for a changing organizational context. Human Resource Management Review, 21 (4), 331–341.

Judge, T.A., Locke, E.A., Durham, C.C., Kluger, A.N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83 (1), 17–34.

Katorgina, K.N. (2021). Organizational and Personal Predictors of Job Satisfaction. Master’s thesis. St Petersburg. (In Russian)

Khromov, A.B. (2000). Five-factor personality questionnaire: teaching and methodical mean. Kurgan, Kurgan State University Press. (In Russian)

Kolyshkinа, T.B. (2018). Features of professional burnout of BTL-managers. Vestnik YarGU. Ser. Gumanitarnie nauki, 16 (1), 94–98. Available at: (accessed: 23.12.2020) (In Russian)

Kong, F., Tsai, C.-H., Tsai, F.-S., Huang, W., De la Cruz, S.M. (2018). Psychological capital research: A meta-analysis and implications for management sustainability. Sustainability, 10 (10), 3457.

Ksenofontova, E.G. (1999). Study of the locus of control: New version of “Level of subjective control”. Psikhologicheskiy zhurnal, 20 (2), 103–114. (In Russian)

Lepekhin, N.N., Ilyina, O.N. (2021). Antecedents of job crafting strategy choices. In: A.A.Grachev, A. L. Zhuravlev, A.N.Zankovskij (eds), Sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiia psikhologii truda i organizatsionnoi psikhologii (pp. 887–904). Moscow, Institute of Psychology RAS. (In Russian)

Luteijn, F. (1997). Personality and the quality of an intimate relationship. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10 (3), 220–223.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B., Norman, S.M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60 (3), 541–572.

Nasledov, A.D. (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics 20 and AMOS: Professional Statistical Data Analysis. St Petersburg, Piter Publ. (In Russian)

Ployhart, R.E., Chen, G. (2019). The vital role of teams in the mobilization of strategic human capital resources. In: A.J.Nyberg, T.Moliterno (eds), Handbook of research on strategic human capital resources (pp. 354–369).

Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. Pujol-Cols, L. (2019). Core self-evaluations, perceived job characteristics and job satisfaction: Evidence from two independent samples of highly skilled Argentinian workers. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 28 (1), 131–146.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Shvartser, R., Erusalem, M., Romek, V. (1996). The Russian version of general selfefficacy scale of R. Schwarzer and M. Erusalem. Inostrannaia psikhologiia, 7, 71–77. (In Russian)

Zenger, M., Körner, A., Maier, G.W., Hinz, A., Stöbel-Richter, Y., Brähler, E., Hilbert, A. (2014). The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Psychometric properties of the German version in a representative sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97 (3), 310–318.

Information About the Authors

Sergey A. Manichev, PhD in Psychology, St. Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:

Nikolay N. Lepekhin, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, St. Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Olga N. Ilyina, Postgraduate Student, St Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:



Total: 153
Previous month: 11
Current month: 4


Total: 125
Previous month: 15
Current month: 9