Intergenerational Relationships as a Factor of Students’ Psychological Well-Being: the Moderation Role of Time Perspective



The work addresses the analysis of connections between indicators of intergenerational relations, time perspective and psychological well-being. The period of early adulthood is a period of self-determination, searching for meanings and setting goals for the future. Such transformations affect not only specific, but also integral mental characteristics, such as psychological well-being. The change in social roles that occurs at this age leads to the formation of new social ties, including complicating the system of intergenerational relations. At the same time, research shows that time perspective is associated with psychological well-being, while, as a rule, a positive assessment of perspective is positively associated with psychological well-being. Also, the time perspective is associated with intergenerational relationships. At the same time, there is no data on how these three constructs relate to each other. In our study, we grounded on the existing data and principles of development in ontogenesis, which led us to the idea that time perspective can mediate the strength of effect of intergenerational relationships on psychological well-being. The study sample consisted of 433 students of St Petersburg universities aged 17–24. For the study, we used: the scale of psychological well-being by C.Riff as adapted by L.V.Zhukovskaya, E.G.Troshikhina, Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), Intergenerational Social Relations Questionnaire (M.D.Petrash, O.Yu. Strizhitskaya). The analysis showed that intergenerational relationships, time perspective, and psychological well-being were closely related. Regression analysis refined these results by highlighting the component “personal growth” as the most closely associated with both intergenerational relationships and time perspective. Pathway structural modeling allowed us to see the mediation effect of time perspective. Thus, the results of our study allowed us to conclude that intergenerational relationships, time perspective and psychological well-being were connected, but also had the differentiated nature of these relationships. The theoretical significance of the results is that we showed the role of relationships with other generations and their effect on the psychological well-being of young people, that was mediated by the parameters of the time perspective. The practical significance of the work is related to the possibilities of psychological assistance in the formation and correction of the time perspective, taking into account the mechanisms obtained in the work.

General Information

Keywords: intergenerational relationships, time perspective, psychological well-being, personal growth, early adulthood

Journal rubric: Empirical and Experimental Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant no. 19-013-00861 “Professional development in the structure of intergenerational relations during the transition from youth to adulthood”.

For citation: Strizhitskaya O.Y., Petrash M.D. Intergenerational Relationships as a Factor of Students’ Psychological Well-Being: the Moderation Role of Time Perspective. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2022. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 472–486. DOI: 10.21638/spbu16.2022.406. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


Bernhold, Q. S. (2020). Grandparents’ affectionate communication toward grandchildren and grandchildren’s mental health difficulties: The moderating role of future time perspective. Health Communication, 35 (7), 822–831.

Chen, T., Liu, L., Cui, J., Qin, X., Shi, H., Irish, M., Wang, Ya. (2021). Balanced time perspective and life satisfaction: The mediating role of “Temporal Negative Affect.” Journal of Happiness Studies, 22 (6), 2563–2574.

Klementyeva, M. V. (2020). The “authentic self ” as a predictor of emerging adulthood in students. Psikhologicheskaia nauka i obrazovanie, 25 (3), 64–74. (In Russian, аbstr. in English)

Lawford, H. L., Astrologo, L., Ramey, H. L., Linden-Andersen, S. (2020). Identity, intimacy, and generativity in adolescence and young adulthood: A test of the psychosocial model. Identity, 20 (1), 9–21.

Măirean, C., Diaconu-Gherasim, L. R. (2019). Adolescents’ subjective well-being: The role of adolescents’ and mothers’ time perspectives. Time & Society, 28 (3), 1084–1104.

Nowakowska, I. (2020). Prosociality in relation to developmental tasks of emerging adulthood. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 25 (4), 15–25.

Petrash, M. D., Strizhitskaya, O. Yu. (2020). Intergenerational social relationships: developing of a youth version. World of Science. Pedagogy and psychology, 6 (8). Available at: (assessed: 20.12.2021). (In Russian)

Polenick, C. A., Fredman, S. J., Birditt, K. S., Zarit, S. H. (2018). Relationship quality with parents: Implications for own and partner well-being in middle-aged couples. Family Process, 57 (1), 253–268.

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4 (4), 99–104.

Sergienko, E. A. (2014). The principle of differentiation — integration in the system of developmental psychology methodology. Differential-integration theory of development (pp. 45–61), comp. and ed. N. I. Chuprikova, E. V. Volkova, 2. Moscow, Iaziki slavianskoi kul’turi Publ. (In Russian)

Sergienko, E. A., Zhuravlev, A. L. (2016). The genesis of the principle of development in modern psychology (instead of the preface). Principle of development in modern psychology (pp. 5–27). Moscow, Institute of Psychology of the RAS Press. (In Russian)

Simons, M., Peeters, S., Janssens, M., Lataster, J., Jacobs, N. (2018). Does age make a difference? Age as moderator in the association between time perspective and happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19 (1), 57–67.

Sircova, A., Sokolova, E. T., Mitina, O. V. (2008). Adaptation of Zimbardo time perspective inventory. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 29 (3), 101–109. (In Russian)

Strizhitskaya, O. Yu. (2019). Loneliness as a resource for coping with life circumstances in the context of futurization. Psikhologiia stressa i sovladaiushchego povedeniia: vyzovy, resursy, blagopoluchie: materialy V Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii. Kostroma, 26–28 sentiabria 2019 goda: in 2 vols. Vol. 1 (pp. 569–572). Kostroma, Kostromskoi gosudarstvennyi universitet. (In Russian)

Sun, R. (2016). Intergenerational age gaps and a family member’s well-being: A family systems approach. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 14 (4), 320–337.

Tseferidi, S.-I., Griva, F., Anagnostopoulos, F. (2017). Time to get happy: associations of time perspective with indicators of well-being. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22 (5), 618–624.

Urick, M. J., Hollensbe, E. C., Fairhurs, G. T. (2017). Differences in understanding generation in the workforce. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 15 (3), 221–240.

Zhukovskaya, L. V., Troshikhina, E. G. (2011). K. Ryff’s scale of Psychological Well-being. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 32 (2), 82–93. (In Russian)

Zimbardo, P. G., Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288.

Information About the Authors

Olga Y. Strizhitskaya, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Marina D. Petrash, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Saint Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 108
Previous month: 8
Current month: 6


Total: 108
Previous month: 12
Current month: 4