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Cultural-Historical Psychology

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 1816-5435

ISSN (online): 2224-8935


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 2005

Published quarterly

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The zone of proximal development in play and learning 2290


Hakkarainen P.
PhD, Editor-in-chief of Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, professor emeritus, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Bredikyte M.
PhD, senior researcher and associate professor, Vytautas Magnus University, Vilnius, Luthuania

The concept of the ZPD is characterized in a different way in two separate contexts (school and play) in Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology. Creative and motivational aspect of learning is emphasized in development supported by play. In play context personality development is focused on and development of psychological functions in problem solving at school. We proposed an extended concept of the ZPD, which integrates the two definitions and includes an additional distance from potentials to personality changes. In play development from the crisis of the third year to the next crisis at seven we suggest three different types of the ZPD depending on the play initiatives.

Keywords: zone of proximal development, learning, play

Column: Developmental Psychology

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