Previous issue (2020. Vol. 13, no. 1)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
Eye movements as indicator of solution knowledge in anagram solving 1294
The current study attempted to replicate the results of Ellis et al. (2011) in an extended way. In the original study Ellis et al. demonstrated that eye movements may indicate the solution knowledge prior to response. They compared viewing times on the distractor letter vs. solution letters. Viewing time on distractor letter started decreasing since several seconds prior to response both in insight and non-insight trials. We added two additional parameters of anagrams: solution-word frequency and frequency of cooccurrence (“agglutination”) of the distractor letter with the solution letters. Low-frequency words and/or stimuli with high agglutinating distractor were solved less often and longer than others, with the effect of distractor type only for the low-frequency words. Eye-tracking data analysis revealed that either in insight and non-insight trials distractor did not differ from solution letters in the first half of the solving process, but had fewer viewing time in the second half of the solving process. In the more difficult stimuli (by solution- word frequency and distractor type) distractor was revealed later than in easier ones or did not differ at all. Eye-tracking data on viewing time on distractor vs. solution letters were in accordance with the Ellis et al.’s results and the anagram difficulty factors.
- Adams J.W., Stone M., Vincent R.D., Muncer S.J. The Role of Syllables in
Anagram Solution: A Rasch Analysis. The Journal of General Psychology,
2011, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 94–109.
- Bowden E.M. The Effect of Reportable and
Unreportable Hints on Anagram Solution and the Aha!
Experience. Consciousness and Cognition, 1997, vol. 6, no. 4, pp.
- Bowers K.S., Regehr G., Balthazard C., Parker K. Intuition in the context
of discovery. Cognitive Psychology, 1990, vol. 22, no. 1, pp.
- Ellis J.J., Glaholt M.G., Reingold E.M. Eye
movements reveal solution knowledge prior
to insight. Consciousness and Cognition, 2011, vol. 20, no. 3, pp.
- Furby L. Anagram Solving Strategies in Children. The Journal of General
Psychology, 1977, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 267–279.
- Lung C., Dominowski R.L. Effects of strategy instructions and practice on
nine-dot problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory, and Cognition, 1985, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 804–811.
- Knight D., Muncer S.J. Type and token bigram frequencies for two-through
nine-letter words and the prediction of anagram difficulty. Behavior
Research Methods, 2011, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 491–498.
- Mendelsohn G.A., O’Brien A.T. The solution of anagrams: A reexamination of
the effects of transition letter probabilities, letter moves, and word
frequency on anagram difficulty. Memory & Cognition, 1974, vol. 2,
no. 3, pp. 566–574.
- Metcalfe J., Wiebe D. Intuition in insight and noninsight problem solving.
Memory & Cognition, 1987, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 238–246.
- Novick L.R., Sherman S.J. On the nature of insight solutions: Evidence from
skill differences in anagram solution. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental
Psychology Section A, 2003, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 351–382.
- Valueva E.A., Golysheva E.A., Ushakov D.V. Signal'naya model' insaita i
veroyatnost' resheniya insaitnykh zadach [Signal model
of insight: probability of insight problem
solving]. In S.S. Belova,
- A.A. Grigor'ev, A.L. Zhuravlev, E.M. Lapteva, D.V. Ushakov, M.A. Kholodnaya
(eds.), Tvorchestvo: Nauka, iskusstvo, zhizn’. Materialy
Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 95-letiyu so dnya
rozhdeniya Ya.A. Ponomareva (24–26 sentyabrya 2015 g.) [Creativity:
Science, Art, Life. Proceedings of the Allrussian science conference
dedicated to the ninety-five anniversary of Ya.A. Ponomerev (September 24–26,
2015)]. Moscow: «Institut psikhologii RAN» Publ., 2015. Pp. 60–64.
- Salvucci D.D., Goldberg J.H. Identifying fixations and saccades in
eye-tracking protocols. . Proceedings of the symposium on Eye
tracking research & applications - ETRA ’00, New York, New York,
USA, ACM Press, 2000, pp. 71–78.