The Phenomenon of Time Perspective across Different Cultures: Review of Researches Using ZTPI Scale



One's preference for certain time orientations is influenced by many factors including culture. The aim of this research was to describe the phenomenon of time perspective in different cultures. The authors carried out re-evaluation of reliability and validity of the Russian version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scale and compared the findings with the original scale as well as with its adapted versions (French and others). The sample consisted of 1136 people aged 14 to 81 from eighteen Russian cities and was divided into seven age groups. As a result, the five factor structure of the ZTPI was replicated on the Russian sample (reliability and validity proved to be quite high), although certain changes had been made to the test keys because of cultural differences. The five factors of the ZTPI that are similar both in Russian and French samples make it possible to carry out cross-cultural comparisons using this scale. It was also found that women have higher orientation to Past Positive and Present Fatalistic than men. People living in large cities score higher on Present Hedonistic and lower on Future that people living in small towns.

General Information

Keywords: time perspective, time orientations, Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, confirmatory factor analysis

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Sircova A., Mitina O.V., Boyd J., Davydova I.S., Zimbardo P.G., Nepryaho T.L., Nikitina E.A., Semyonova N.S., Fieulaine N., Yasnaya V.A. The Phenomenon of Time Perspective across Different Cultures: Review of Researches Using ZTPI Scale. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2007. Vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 19–31. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2007030403. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Anna Sircova, Graduate Student of the Faculty of Educational Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Riga, Latvia, e-mail:

Olga V. Mitina, PhD in Psychology, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Communication Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

John Boyd, PhD, Director of Design Research, Yahoo! Inc., USA

Irina S. Davydova, MA student, Russian Sate University for the Humanities, school psychologist, Secondary Comprehensive School No 199, Korolev, Russia, e-mail:

Philip G. Zimbardo, PhD in Psychology, Professor Emeritus, Chair of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, USA, e-mail:

Tatyana L. Nepryaho, Head of Psychodiagnostic Laboratory at the Faculty of Psychology and Social Work, Tver State University, Tver, Russia, e-mail:

Ekaterina A. Nikitina, Postgraduate Student, Center of Educational Sociology, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

Nadeshda S. Semyonova, Postgraduate Student at the Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

Nicolas Fieulaine, PhD, Lecturer in Social Psychology, Groupe de Recherche en Psychologie Sociale (GRePS), Institut de Psychologie, Universite Lyon 2, Lyon, France

Vera A. Yasnaya, Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Yuridical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia



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