Levels of Processing and Zinchenko's Approach to Memory Research



In this article we outline some of the main ideas and observations embodied in the levels of processing approach to memory research (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975) and compare these concepts and findings with those previously reported by P.I. Zinchenko. There are clearly many similarities between the two sets of ideas, as pointed out by Meshcheryakov (2008). We acknowledge these similarities while also pointing out differences between the two approaches. The field of memory studies would benefit from a closer integration between the ideas stemming from activity theory and those in the Western tradition.

General Information

Keywords: P. I. Zinchenko, A. A. Smirnov, B. G. Meshcheryakov, activity theory, levels of processing theory, voluntary and involuntary memorization

Journal rubric: History of Science

For citation: Craik F., Lockhart R. Levels of Processing and Zinchenko's Approach to Memory Research. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2009. Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 14–18. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


Bartlett F. C. Remembering: a study in experimental and social psychology. Oxford, England: Macmillan, 1932.

Information About the Authors

Fergus Craik, Doctor of Psychology, Senior Scientist, Rotman Research Institute, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, e-mail: fcraik@rotman-baycrest.on.ca

R. Lockhart, professor in the Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, e-mail: lockhart@psych.utoronto.ca



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