Self Actualization or Morality: A Research on Motivation in Students of Pontifical Gregorian University



The paper provides an explanation of the phenomenon of moral personality basing on the empirical research on motivation in students of the Pontifical Gregorian University. Moral personality is characterized by the dominance of transindividualistic and protective motivational tendencies: altruism and morality and, at the same time, low priority of selfrealization. The paper also describes regional differences in motivation which for dominant motivational types turned out to be dependent upon relatively stable, basic archetypes of ethnic consciousness, whereas for low priority motivation groups were situational. The results obtained in the study enabled the authors to hypothesize on the complementary character of moral and selfactualized (as described by Maslow) personalities, both necessary for successful development of the society.

General Information

Keywords: systematic psychology, vital motivation, self-preservation, altruism, cognitive motivation, defense potential of personality, self-actualization, morality.

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Ryzhov B.N., Senkevich L.V., Morgalla S. Self Actualization or Morality: A Research on Motivation in Students of Pontifical Gregorian University. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2013. Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 10–17. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Boris N. Ryzhov, Doctor of Psychology, PhD in Psychology, professor, head of the Chair of Developmental Psychology and Innovations, Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, e-mail:

Lyudmila V. Senkevich, PhD in Psychology, associate professor, chair of social, general and clinical psychology, faculty of psychology, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

Stanislav Morgalla, Doctor of Philosophy, PhD, associate professor at the Pontifical Gregorian University (Italy), e-mail:



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