Personality Inner Position as the Basis for Civic Identity Development



In this paper methodologically approaches to the problem of the formation of civic identity are presented. The authors refer to the concept of “Phenomenology of Personal Development and Being” (V.S. Mukhina). A person’s inner position as an essential basis for the formation of the civic identity should include the following: 1. The value attitude towards the reality of objective and spiritual world as a result of historically established activities of mankind. 2. The subject-subject attitude to natural reality, requiring citizens to value Russia's unique natural diversity. 3. The reality of image-sign consciousness in general with particular importance of the reality of civic consciousness and civic identity. 4. The reality of social and normative space, first of all, value attitude to civil rights and duties of everyone, to laws of Russia, to results of science and cultural traditions of numerous nations of the country. 5. The reality of individual’s inner space certainly presupposes an active civic position, coupled with the value attitude towards oneself as a citizen, ready to take responsibility for one's own development and being as an integral personality, committed to one’s country as a stronghold of the State.

General Information

Keywords: person’s inner position, civil identity, rights and duties, inner position of a citizen, realities of being

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, project number 121081200036-6.

Received: 27.09.2021


For citation: Mukhina V.S., Melkov S.V. Personality Inner Position as the Basis for Civic Identity Development. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2022. Vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 105–112. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2022180110.

Full text

Today there are socio-cultural and worldview changes especially acutely reflected in the self-consciousness of the younger generation [26], which is value ambivalent [39] and sensitive to both spontaneous information influence and targeted propaganda of global policy actors. In today’s information society, “information sets not only the socialization trajectory but patterns of behavior, standards of identification for a large group of people as well” [18, p. 78], creates risks to person’s mental health and well-being [36, p. 83]. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that Russia is in the process of searching for and shaping the state ideology that can carry out the task of consolidating its citizens, which will not succeed without a developed civil identity of Russians based on a conscious inner position of a person who is capable of consciously taking responsibility for the well-being and development of the country.

Vladimir Dal’ once defined the word “citizen” in his Dictionary of the Living Russian Language [11, p. 400]. More than 140 years have passed since the publication date. However, we can see how the meanings and implications of this word have changed for such a historically short period. Today, in the Dictionary of the Russian language, one can see what changes have taken place with the meanings and implications of this word [9, p. 342].

The philosophical encyclopedia refers us to G.W.F. Hegel, who wrote that civil is a society, in which private and common interests are combined. The philosopher believed: “It is only by being a citizen of a good state that an individual achieves his right” [8, p. 207]. The philosopher thought that: “In civil society, everyone is a goal for himself; everything else is nothing to him. However, without relating to others, one cannot achieve his/her goals in their entirety: these others are therefore the means for the goal of the particular. But the particular goal through its relationship with others gives itself the form of the universal and satisfies itself, satisfying at the same time the striving of others for the good” [8, p. 228].

H.W.F. Hegel regarded civil society as a condition and opportunity for the realization of a man’s rights as a free individual, whose individual goals are interconnected with public duties, without which they lose any reasonable sense. The freedom to be an individual also implies personal responsibility for the social conditions that determine his or her development and being. Philosopher was certainly right when he said that there are no rights without responsibilities. A citizen’s rights are only realized when he or she assumes the responsibility to care for and develop his or her state for the benefit of all and for the benefit of himself or herself.

It is then useful to turn to ideas about Russia’s identity in its historical path. F.M. Dostoevsky argued: “...our people carry within the organic rudiments of an idea, special from all the world. This idea has such a great power in us that, of course, will affect all of our future history, and since it is very special and like no one else, our history cannot be like that of other European nations, much less its slavish copy. That’s what our smart people who believe that everything in our country will be transformed into Europe without any specialness and who hate specialness, from which, of course, things may even end in disaster do not understand” [12, p. 493].

With respect to the national idea, the thoughts of philosopher V.S. Solov’ev [30] had a significant influence. E.N. Trubetskoy most closely adhered to his ideas, emphasizing the great thinker’s role in overcoming a variant of nationalist Russian messianism. E.N. Trubetskoy wrote: “Unfortunately, the awareness of the sins and contradictions of old Slavophilism did not save Solov’ev himself from the same fatal infatuation. The old traditional dream of the third Rome and the God-bearing people was resurrected in another form” [34, p. 245]. At the same time, the philosopher expressed confidence that: “Russian is not the same as Christian, but represents an extremely valuable national and individual feature among Christianity, which undoubtedly has a universal, ecumenical significance. By renouncing false anti-Christian messianism, we will inevitably be led to a more Christian solution to the national question. We shall see in Russia not the only chosen nation, but one of the nations, which together with others is called to do the great work of God, making up for its valuable features with equally valuable qualities of all other brother nations” [34, p. 256].

At the same time, historian N.S. Trubetskoy, a nephew of E.N. Trubetskoy, addressed the problem of the Russian national idea and wrote with compassion about the identity of Russian emigration: “Russian emigration is a political phenomenon, a direct consequence of political events. No matter how hard Russian emigrants try to escape politics, they are unable to do so without ceasing to be emigrants... returning home is everyone’s cherished dream” [35, p. 228].

More than 100 years have passed since the 1917 revolution. Since the Civil War, the country has experienced many transformations, stresses and losses in addition to military and political upheavals.

Isn’t it time to think about the potential of the emigrants who voluntarily left and were forcibly expelled from the Fatherland?

Russia has lost that special layer of spiritual culture which the nobility had been known for.

We are close to the thoughts of N.A. Berdyaev about the Russian intelligentsia: “The Russian intelligentsia is a very special, only in Russia existing, spiritual and social formation. Intelligentsia is not a social class ... Intelligentsia was an idealistic class, a class of people who were entirely enthusiastic about ideas and were prepared to go to prison, to hard labor and to execution for the sake of their ideas ... Impossibility of political activity led to the confession of the most extreme social teachings under autocratic monarchy and serfdom ... The Russian intelligentsia has discovered an exceptional capacity for ideological fascination” [6, pp. 34—35]. The Russians were fascinated by many of the ideas of European thinkers “as no one has ever been passionate in their homeland” [6, p. 35].

Intelligentsia is a social group consisting of people who not only have education and special professional knowledge in the field of science, technology and culture, a group of persons engaged in intellectual work; it is also necessarily a social group with a highly developed Russian language, with a decent education, reflected in the actions, everyday behavior of people and in extreme, unexpectedly occurring situations, when a person is subconsciously taken over by evolutionary instincts.

We are convinced that it is time for the whole world to think and to want to return emigrants to their motherland.

No less important task for our state is to solve the problem of “brain drain” of potential intellectual elite to foreign countries [2; 21; 29] by creating conditions for self-realization, legal protection and material well-being of people engaged in scientific activities for the benefit of Russia.

The education system has an undoubted potential for the development of the civic identity, but the existing practices of its formation are mainly built within the established processes of socialization, sometimes ignoring intrapersonal aspects and the value and meaning sphere, which is the basis for the development of any identity of a person. Today it becomes obvious that a “person’s value and meaning sphere determines his/her social behavior and the strategic task of the education system is to create an educational environment conducive to the development of students’ personal potential” [1, p. 5]. Therefore, it seems particularly important to develop methodological approaches to the formation of inner position of a person, including the organization of educational work in school [3;4, p. 9] which will be an organic basis for the development of a holistic constructive civic identity.

Today in Russia the need to form civic identity is declared as one of the priorities of public policy, science and education [27; 28], but in Russian psychology the study of personal civic identity has been on the periphery of scholarly interest.

There have been 16 dissertations on the issue in Russia and only one PhD in psychology [14] where the civic identity as a psychological phenomenon is not conceptualized, but only considered as one of the sampling criteria.

Since a developed personality is a condition for a holistic constructive civic identity [24], it is important to focus on a holistic psychological concept of personality in methodological approaches to its formation. Such an approach is not yet represented in Russia. For this we turn to the concept “Phenomenology of Personality Development and Being” [22].

We invariably talk about the importance of “inner position” for personality development [19; 22, pp. 857—858], which we understand as “a special value attitude to oneself, to the people around, to one’s own life path and to life in general” [22, p. 913]. A person’s inner position is inextricably linked to self-awareness [20; 23]. Self-awareness involves reflection on one’s place in nature, in the world of objects, in the world of image and sign systems and in the social and normative space [22, p. 20, 174, 841, 872, 916].

Social conditions for civic identity formation are the realities of being in the object, natural, image-sign and socio-normative spaces of the country [22, p. 739—959]. Contemporary research addresses particular aspects of the realities of being as they relate to the issue of the civic identity: the image of the homeland as a reflection of ideas about the state in the minds of citizens is studied [32], regional identity in the context of local territorial conditions of citizenship development [17] and the mechanism of social integration of civil society [10; 25] are considered, the relationship between environmental settings and civic identity [31] is described, the educational potential of music and language consciousness [33] and possibilities of citizenship education and the formation of its value orientations by the music of the peoples of the world [37] is justified, the age specificity of the civic position, civic activity [15] and legal consciousness of a citizen [7; 40] are discussed, the relationship between the civic identity and religious attitudes [38] and behavioral strategies in the context of interethnic relations [5] are described, the place of language realities [13], national and ethnic identity in the structure of civil consciousness [41] is considered. The concept “Phenomenology of Personality Development and Being” [22] offers a holistic systemic vision of external conditions as realities of being and personality development that determine the formation of the civic identity.

A person’s inner position is born at the intersection of humanity’s created realities of being. Therefore, a person’s inner position as the basis for the holistic constructive civic identity formation includes the following:

  1. Valuable attitude towards the reality of objective and spiritual world as a result of historically established activities of mankind with a focus on the achievements of material and spiritual production in our Homeland.
  2. Subject-subject attitude to the reality of natural world requiring citizens to value Russia’s unique natural diversity.
  3. The reality of image-sign consciousness — above all the reality of civic awareness and civic identity. For Russian citizens — a value attitude towards Russian and undoubtedly for all the peoples of the country to their ancestral national languages, domestic achievements in science and culture in the past, present and near future.
  4. Reality of social and normative space — above all, the value attitude to civil rights and responsibilities, to the laws of Russia, to the results of science and to the cultural traditions of the country’s numerous peoples. Respect for the history of the State development, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, including the Art Constitution, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and other socially significant normative acts formulated in Russia and civilized countries.
  5. The reality of a person’s inner space presupposes an active civic position, coupled with a value attitude towards oneself as a citizen, ready to take the responsibility for one’s own development and being as an integral personality committed to his/her country as a bulwark of the State.

The civic identity is a phenomenon of a person’s inner position which develops through identification with the ideas that affirm the value of a person as a citizen of his/her Homeland.


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Information About the Authors

Valeriya S. Mukhina, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Scientific Director of the Department of Psychology of Personality Development, Moscow Pedagogical State University (MPGU), Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Sergey V. Melkov, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology of Personality Development, Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology, Moscow Pedagogical State University (MPGU), Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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