Psychological Structure of the Defect as the Basis for Psychological Assistance to Children with Developmental Deviations

7

Abstract

The concept of “psychological structure of a defect” is analyzed in the context of its use for designing psychological assistance for a child with developmental disabilities. The potential of this concept is revealed for identifying individual characteristics of abnormal mental development. The psychological structure of the defect is defined as a set of nuclear mental anomalies that serve as the basis for the emergence of the entire spectrum of particular manifestations of the child’s abnormal development, as well as the agent’s reaction to them. Two types of personality response are identified – objective and subjective. The first reveals changes in mental functions, the second reveals the subject’s experiences about the defect, including the attitude towards the defect, emotional-sensory and behavioral components. The agent's reaction to the defect reflects the cyclical nature of the formation of the structure of the defect. It can both support the existence of the nuclear defect, generate defects of a higher order (dysfunctional cycle) and facilitate overcoming them (evolutionary cycle).

General Information

Keywords: abnormal development, psychological structure of the defect, psychological diagnosis of abnormal development, psychological correction

Journal rubric: Clinical Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/chp.2024200203

Acknowledgements. The author is grateful for the discussion of the article to E.S. Slepovich.

Received: 27.12.2023

Accepted:

For citation: Polyakov A.M. Psychological Structure of the Defect as the Basis for Psychological Assistance to Children with Developmental Deviations. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2024. Vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 23–31. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2024200203. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Vygotskii L.S. Lektsii po pedologii [Lectures on pedology]. Izhevsk: Publ. «Udmurtskii universitet», 2001, 304 p.
  2. Vygotskii L.S. Osnovy defektologii. Ed. T.A. Vlasovoi. Sobranie sochinenii: v 6-ti t. T.5. [Basics of defectology. Collected Works: in 6 vol. Vol.5]. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1983, 368 p.
  3. Gaidukevich E.A. Vnutrennyaya kartina defekta podrostkov s DTsP: diagnostika, profilaktika, korrektsiya // Natsional'noe zdorov'e. 2019, no. 3, pp. 84–91.
  4. Lebedinskii V.V. Narusheniya psikhicheskogo razvitiya v detskom vozraste [Mental development disorders in childhood]: Ucheb. posobie dlya stud. psikhol. fak. vyssh. ucheb. zavedenii. Moscow: «Akademiya», 2003, 144 p.
  5. Lubovskii V.I. Obshchie i spetsificheskie zakonomernosti razvitiya psikhiki anomal'nykh detei [General and specific patterns of mental development of abnormal children]. Defektologiya = Defectology. 1971, no. 6, pp. 15–19.
  6. Lubovskii V.I. Psikhologicheskie problemy diagnostiki anomal'nogo razvitiya detei [Psychological problems of diagnosing abnormal development of children]. Nauch.-issled. in-t defektologii Akad. ped. nauk SSSR. Moscow: «Pedagogika», 1989, 104 p.
  7. Lubovskii V.I. L.S. Vygotskii i spetsial'naya psikhologiya [L.S. Vygotsky and special psychology]. Voprosy psikhologii = Psychology issues. 1996, no. 6, pp. 118–124.
  8. Lubovskii V.I., Korobeinikov I.A., Valyavko S.M. Novaya kontseptsiya psikhologicheskoi diagnostiki narushenii razvitiya [New concept of psychological diagnosis of developmental disorders]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological science and education. 2016. Vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 50–60. DOI:10.17759/pse.2016210405 (In Russ.).
  9. Lubovskii V.I. Chto takoe «struktura defekta»? [What is a “defect structure”?]. Spetsial'noe obrazovanie = Special education. 2018, no. 4, pp. 145–157.
  10. Lubovskii D.V. Predislovie k stat'e V.I. Lubovskogo «Chto takoe “struktura defekta”?» [Preface to the article by V.I. Lubovsky “What is the “defect structure”?”]. Aktual'nye problemy psikhologicheskogo znaniya = Current problems of psychological knowledge. 2023, no. 3 (64), pp. 266–269.
  11. Nurkova V.V. Samoopredelyayushchie avtobiograficheskie vospominaniya v sisteme lichnostno-mnemicheskikh mezhfunktsional'nykh svyazei [Self-determining autobiographical memories in the system of personal-mnemonic interfunctional connections]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-historical psychology. 2022. Vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 79–89. DOI:10.17759/chp.2022180108 (In Russ.).
  12. Polyakov A.M. K probleme zakonomernostei anomal'nogo razvitiya v spetsial'noi psikhologii [On the problem of patterns of abnormal development in special psychology]. Aktual'nye problemy psikhologicheskogo znaniya = Current problems of psychological knowledge. 2023, no. 3 (64), pp. 281–291.
  13. Polyakov A.M. Razvitie soznaniya v kontekste problemy znakovogo i simvolicheskogo oposredstvovaniya [Development of consciousness in the context of the problem of sign and symbolic mediation]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-historical psychology. 2022. Vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 4–12. DOI:10.17759/chp.2022180201 (In Russ.).
  14. Sevast'yanova U.Yu. Osobennosti lichnosti i vnutrennyaya kartina defekta u podrostkov s raznymi variantami dizontogeneza [Personality characteristics and internal picture of the defect in adolescents with different variants of dysontogenesis]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika = Bulletin of Kostroma State University. Series: Pedagogy. Psychology. Sociokinetics. 2020. Vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 210–215. DOI:10.34216/207314262020264210215
  15. Slepovich E.S., Polyakov A.M. Ponyatie «psikhologicheskii diagnoz» i ego primenenie v diagnostike otklonenii psikhicheskogo razvitiya [Elektronnyi resurs] [The concept of “psychological diagnosis” and its application in the diagnosis of mental development disorders]. Al'manakh Instituta korrektsionnoi pedagogiki = Almanac of the Institute of Correctional Pedagogy. 2022. Al'manakh no. 47. URL: https://alldef.ru/ru/articles/almanac-47/the-concept-of-psychological-diagnosis-and-its-application-in-the-diagnostics-of-abnormal-mental-development (Accessed: 08.06.2023).
  16. Slepovich E.S. Psikhologicheskaya struktura zaderzhki psikhicheskogo razvitiya v doshkol'nom vozraste: Avteref. dis. … d-ra psikhol. nauk: 19.00.10 [Psychological structure of learning disabilities in preschool age. Dr. Sci. (Psychology). Thesis]. Moscow, 1994. 37 p.
  17. Tikhonova I.V., Khazova S.A. Vnutrennyaya kartina defekta pri zaderzhke psikhicheskogo razvitiya [Internal picture of the defect in learning disabilities]. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika = Pedagogy. Psychology. Sociokinetics. 2019, no. 4, pp. 177–183. DOI:10.34216/207314262019254177183
  18. Uait M. Karty narrativnoi praktiki: Vvedenie v narrativnuyu terapiyu [Mapping narrative practice: an introduction to narrative therapy]. Per. s angl. Moscow: Publ. Genezis, 2010, 326 p.
  19. Polyakov A.M. Development of symbolic mediation of subject-to-subject interaction and relationships in schoolchildren with learning disabilities. In A. Arinushkina, I.A. Korobeynikov (Eds.). Education of children with special needs: theoretical foundations and practical experience in the selected works of Russian, Belarus, and Polish Scholars. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2022, pp. 169–180. DOI:10.1007/978-3-031-13646-7_18

Information About the Authors

Aleksei M. Polyakov, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Chair of General and Medical Psychology, Belorussian State University, Minsk, Belarus, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2089-1093, e-mail: polyakov.bsu@gmail.com

Metrics

Views

Total: 18
Previous month: 0
Current month: 18

Downloads

Total: 7
Previous month: 0
Current month: 7