Peculiarities of perception (visual gnosis) and thinking in patients with schizotypal disorder



The article deals with the peculiarities of perception (visual gnosis) and thinking in patients with schizotypal disorder. A cognitive pattern of perception, characteristics of voluntary attention and changes in the mental domain in patients with this pathology were described. 45 people suffering from schizotypal disorder (F21 for ICD-10) were examined, including 27 men and 18 women, the average age was 22.06 ± 1.31 years. Control group was the group of university students (30 people) 14 of them men and 16 women, the average age was 21.03 ± 0.9 years, controlshad not suffered from any mental and chronic physical illnesses. Following patho- and neuropsychological techniques were used: figures of Poppelreuter, method «Non-completed images»; «Elimination of excess», Guildford’s test «Social intelligence», Subtest No. 2 of «Group expression», TMT (Trail Making Test, parts A and B). The results have revealed that the visual perception of the patients with schizotypal disorder is disturbed at every stage of visual gnosis, disturbances appear evidently at the stages of formation of a complex image and its further correlation with pattern samples from memory. It has been shown that in patients with schizotypal disorder, the process of internal logical connection between statements is disrupted, as a result, the act of perceptual nomination changes.

General Information

Keywords: schizotypal disorder, perception, visual gnosis, features of thinking

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 18-013-01245 «Vision Perception and thinking in schizophrenia»).

For citation: Simon Y.A., Bizyuk A.P., Isaeva E.R., Shoshina I.I., Mukhitova Y.V. Peculiarities of perception (visual gnosis) and thinking in patients with schizotypal disorder [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2018. Vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 97–110. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2018070207. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Aleinikova S.M., Zakharova N.V. Sravnitel'noe izuchenie osobennostei pertseptivnoi i myslitel'noi deyatel'nosti detei, bol'nykh shizofreniei. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii, 1984, no. 10, pp. 1543–1547.
  2. Zaitseva Yu.S., Sarkisyan G.R., Sarkisyan V.V., Storozhakova Ya.A. Sravnitel'noe issledovanie neirokognitivnogo profilya bol'nykh paranoidnoi shizofreniei i shizoaffektivnym rasstroistvom s pervymi psikhoticheskimi epizodami. Sotsial'naya i klinicheskaya psikhiatriya, 2011, no. 2, pp. 5–11.
  3. Kritskaya V.P., Meleshko T.K. Patopsikhologiya shizofrenii. Moscow: Publ. of «Institut psikhologii RAN», 2015. 389 p.
  4. Lebedeva G.G. Struktura i dinamika kognitivnogo defitsita u patsientov s rasstroistvami shizofrenicheskogo spektra: dis. … kand. psikh. nauk. Saint Petersburg, 2016. 230 p.
  5. Lebedeva G.G., Isaeva E.R. Profiles of Cognitive Deficits in Paranoid Schizophrenia and Schizotypal Disorder [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia [Clinical Psychology and Special Education], 2017, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 79–94. doi: 10.17759/ psycljn.2017060106 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  6. Polyakov Yu. F. Patologiya poznavatel'noi deyatel'nosti pri shizofrenii. Moscow, 1974.  86 p.
  7. Polyakov Yu.F. Problemy i perspektivy eksperimental'nogo issledovanii shizofrenii. In Yu.F Polyakov (ed.) Eksperimental'no–psikhologicheskie issledovaniya patologii psikhicheskoi deyatel'nosti pri shizofrenii. Moscow, 1982. pp. 5–28.
  8. Shoshina I.I., Shelepin Yu.E., Semenova N.B., Pronin S.V. Osobennosti zritel'nogo vospriyatiya u bol'nykh shizofreniei pri terapii atipichnymi i tipichnymi neiroleptikami. Sensornye sistemy, 2013, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 144–152.
  9. Shoshina I.I., Shelepin Yu.E. Mekhanizmy global'nogo i lokal'nogo analiza zritel'noi informatsii pri shizofrenii. Saint Petersburg: VVM, 2016. 300 p.
  10. Yanushko M.G., Shamanina M.V., Kif R., Shipilin M.Yu. Kognitivnye narusheniya pri affektivnykh rasstroistvakh. Sposoby diagnostiki i vozmozhnosti korrektsii. Sovremennaya terapiya psikhicheskikh rasstroistv, 2015, no. 4, pp. 8–13.
  11. Yanushko M.G. Ivanov M.V., Sorokina A.V. Kognitivnye narusheniya pri endogennykh psikhozakh: sovremennye predstavleniya v svete dimensional'nogo podkhoda. Sotsial'naya i klinicheskaya psikhiatriya, 2014, no. 1, pp. 90–95.
  12. Bora E., Yucel M., Pantelis C. Theory of mind impairment in schizophrenia: meta-analysis. Sch. Res, 2009, vol. 109, no. 1–3, pp. 1–9.
  13. Bora E., Yucel M., Pantelis C.  Theory of mind impairment: a distinct trait-marker for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder? Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2009,
    pp. 253–264.
  14. Crow T. Nature of the genetic contribution to psychotic illness – a continuum view point. Acta Psychiatr. Scand, 1990, vol. 81, pp. 401–408.
  15. Kohler C.G., Walker J.B., Martin E.A., Healey K.M., Moberg P.J. Facial emotion perception in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2010, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1009–1019.
  16. Leibowitz H.W., Meyers N.A. The role of simultaneous contrast in brightness constancy. J. Exp. Psychol, 1955, vol. 50, pp. 15–18.
  17. Leibowitz H. W. Relation between the Brunswick and Thouless ratious and functional relations in experimental investigations of perceived shape, size and brightness. Percept. Mot. Skills, 1956, no. 6, pp. 65–68.
  18. Leibowitz H.W. Visual perception. New York, 1965. 165 p.
  19. Payne R.W. Diagnostic and personality testing in clinical psychology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1958, vol. 115, 25 p.
  20. Payne R.W., Friedlander, D.A. Short battery of simple tests for measuring overinclusive thinking. Journal of Mental Science, 1962, vol. 108, pp. 355–362.
  21. Wechowiez Т.E., Blewett D.S. Size constancy and abstract thinking of schizophrenic patients. J. ment. Sci., 1959, vol. 105.

Information About the Authors

Yulia A. Simon, Specialist for Teaching and Studies, Department of General and Clinical Psychology, Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:

Aleksandr P. Bizyuk, PhD in Psychology, Assistand Professor, Department of General and Clinical Psychology, Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:

Elena R. Isaeva, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the Department of Psychology and Clinical Psychology, The First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Petersburg, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina I. Shoshina, Doctor of Biology, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory of the Vision Physiology, Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Science, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Yulianna V. Mukhitova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of Psychology and Clinical Psychology, Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 3141
Previous month: 44
Current month: 33


Total: 1412
Previous month: 14
Current month: 4