Gelotophobia, Gelotophiles, and Katagelasticists in Patients with Depression

1136

Abstract

The article presents a study of gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) for depression. 32 patients with depressive syndrome and 33 mentally healthy people were examined with a complex of methods: clinical interview, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism questionnaire the PhoPhiKat<30>, the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The results showed higher gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) in patients with depressive syndrome in comparison with the control group, and, on the other hand, lower gelotophilia (the joy of being a target of laughter) and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others). No differences on gelotophobia were found in the subgroups of patients with depression within schizophrenia and affective disorders. Gelotophobia under depression was closely connected with social anxiety and the fear of negative evaluation, but was not associated with aggression. Although depression includes experiencing both guilt and shame, gelotophobia characterized only those patients who tended to experience shame. The results of the study allow to reveal specifics of the fear of being laughed at under depression, which may be used in clinical diagnostics and psycho-rehabilitation of these patients.

General Information

Keywords: laughter, fear of being laughed at, gelotophobia, gelotophilia, katagelasticism, depression, affective disorders

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpse.2018070307

For citation: Lubavskaya A.A., Oleichik I., Ivanova E.M. Gelotophobia, Gelotophiles, and Katagelasticists in Patients with Depression [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2018. Vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 119–134. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2018070307. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Goffman E. Stigma: Zametki ob upravlenii isporchennoj identichnost`yu [Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity] [Web source]. In M.S. Dobryakova (ed.) Stigma i sotsial'naya identichnost' [Stigma and social identity], p. 1, 2011, 40 p.
    URL: https://www.hse.ru/data/2011/11/15/1272895702/Goffman_stigma.pdf (Accessed 10.06.2018).
  2. Grigor'eva I.V., Enikolopov S.N. Aprobacija oprosnikov «Shkala social'noj trevozhnosti Libovica» i «Shkala straha negativnoj ocenki (kratkaja versija)» [Approbation of the Questionnaires the “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale” and the “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” (short version)]. Nacional'nyj psihologicheskij zhurnal [National Psychological Journal], 2016, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 31–44 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.). doi: 10.11621/npj.2016.0105
  3. Enikolopov S.N., Cibul'skij N.P. Psihometricheskij analiz russkojazychnoj versii Oprosnika diagnostiki agressii A. Bassa i M. Perri [Psychometric Analysis of Russian-language Version of Questionnaire of Aggression by A. Buss and M. Perry]. Psihologicheskij zhurnal [Psychological Journal], 2007, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 115–124 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  4. Ivanova E.M., Enikolopov S.N. Psihopatologija i chuvstvo jumora [Psychopathology and sense of humour]. Sovremennaja terapija psihicheskih rasstrojstv [Contemporary Therapy of Mental Disorders], 2009, no. 2, pp. 19–24 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  5. Ivanova E.M., Makogon I.K., Stefanenko E.A., Enikolopov S.N., Projer R., Ruh V. Russkojazychnaja adaptacija oprosnika gelotofobii, gelotofilii i katagelasticizma PhoPhiKat [A Russian-language adaptation of the PhoPhiKat questionnaire on gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism]. Voprosy psihologii [Questions of Psychology], 2016, no. 2, pp. 162–171 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  6. Makogon I.K., Enikolopov S.N. Aprobacija metodiki izmerenija sklonnosti k perezhivaniju chuvstva viny i styda (GASP) [Approbation of the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale (GASP)]. Voprosy psihologii [Questions of Psychology], 2014, no. 4, pp. 118–125.
  7. Martin R. Psihologija jumora [The Psychology of Humor: An Integrative Approach]. Kulikov L.V. (ed.). Saint-Petersburg: Piter, 2009, 480 p. (In Russ.).
  8. Stefanenko E.A., Ivanova E.M., Enikolopov S.N., Projer R.T., Ruh V. Diagnostika straha vygljadet' smeshnym: russkojazychnaja adaptacija oprosnika gelotofobii [The fear of being laughed at diagnostics: Russian adaptation of Gelotophobia Questionnaire]. Psihologicheskij zhurnal [Psychological Journal], 2011, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 94–108 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  9. Stefanenko E.A., Enikolopov S.N., Ivanova E.M. Osobennosti otnoshenija k jumoru i smehu u bol'nyh shizofreniej [The attitude towards humor and laughter in patients with schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova [S.S. Korsakov Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry], 2014, no. 1, pp. 26–29. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  10. Tarabrina N.V. Praktikum po psihologii posttravmaticheskogo stressa [Workshop on psychology of a post-traumatic stress]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter, 2001, 272 p. (In Russ.).
  11. Tiganov A.S., Snezhnevskij A.V., Orlovskaia D.D., et al.  Rukovodstvo po psihiatrii [Handbook of Psychiatry], vol. 1. In A.S. Tiganov (ed.). Moscow: Medicina, 1999, 712 p.
  12. Carretero-Dios H., Ruch W., Agudelo D., et al. Fear of being laughed at and social anxiety: A preliminary psychometric study. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 2010, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 108–124. doi: 10.5167/uzh-33204
  13. Forabosco G., Ruch W., Nucera P. The fear of being laughed at among psychiatric patients. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 2009, vol. 22, no. 1-2,
    pp. 233–252. doi: 10.1515/humr.2009.011
  14. Nathanson D.L., Shame and Pride: Affect, Sex, and the Birth of the Self. N.Y.:
    W.W. Norton, 1992, 496 p.
  15. Platt T., Ruch W. The emotions of gelotophobes: Shameful, fearful, and joyless? Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 2009, vol. 22, no. 1-2, pp. 91–110. doi: 10.1515 / HUMR.2009.005
  16. Ruch W. Fearing humor? Gelotophobia: The fear of being laughed at: Introduction and overview. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 2009, vol. 22, no. 1-2,
    pp. 1–26. doi: 10.1515 / HUMR.2009.001
  17. Ruch W., Proyer R.T. The fear of being laughed at: Individual and group differences in Gelotophobia. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 2008(a),
    vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 47–67. doi: 10.1515/HUMOR.2008.002
  18. Ruch W., Proyer R.T. Who is gelotophobic? Assessment criteria for the fear of being laughed at. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 2008(b), vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 19–27. doi: 10.1024 / 1421-0185.67.1.19
  19. Ruch W., Proyer R.T. Who Fears Being Laughed at? The Location of Gelotophobes in the PEN-model of Personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 2009, vol. 46,
    no. 5-6, pp. 627–630. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.004
  20. Samson A.C., Huber O., Ruch W. Teasing, Ridiculing and the Relation to the Fear of Being Laughed at in Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 2011, vol. 41, no 4, pp. 475–483. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1071-2
  21. Scott S., The medicalisation of shyness: from social misfits to social fitness. Sociology of Health & Illness, 2006, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 133–153. doi: 10.1111 / j.1467-9566.2006.00485.x
  22. Titze M., The Pinocchio Complex: Overcoming the fear of laughter. Humor and Health Journal, 1996, no. 5, pp. 1–11.

Information About the Authors

Anastasia A. Lubavskaya, Junior Researcher, Department of Medical Psychology, Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: stesi-94@list.ru

Igor Oleichik, Doctor of Medicine, Chief Researcher of the Department of Endogenous Mental Disorders and Affective States Studies, Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: i.oleichik@mail.ru

Elena M. Ivanova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Senior Researcher, Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3616-9444, e-mail: ivalenka13@gmail.com

Metrics

Views

Total: 2303
Previous month: 11
Current month: 13

Downloads

Total: 1136
Previous month: 6
Current month: 13