The Relationship Between Executive Functions and Prospective Memory in Primary School-Age Children with Symptoms of Subthreshold ADHD



The article presents results of the research of relations between executive functions and prospective memory in primary school-age children with symptoms of subthreshold attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (ADHD). The ADHD Assessment Scale ― ICD-10 criteria (Sukhotina, 2008) and Observation Form for Recording ADHD Behaviors During Academic Performance in the Clinic or in School) (Carter, 1994) were used to assess the symptoms of ADHD. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Wisconsin Sorting Card Test (Grant & Berg, 1948), Сanum (Gutierrez-Martinez, 2018), Вlock span (Isaacs, Vargha-Khadem, 1989), Digit span-backward (Wechsler, 1997), and measurement by Ana B. Cejudo (Cejudo, 2019). 51 children were recruited, 27 subjects were 6–7 years old and 24 subjects were 10 years old. All participants were divided into 2 control groups (children with typical development) and 2 experimental groups (children with symptoms of subthreshold ADHD). Overall, it was found that children in the group of 6–7 years old with symptoms of subthreshold ADHD have no significant differences with children from the control group in basal components of executive function: working memory, cognitive flexibility and executive attention. However, they show a decrease in learning abilities, self-regulation and an increase of non-perseverative errors along with the fall of event-based prospective memory. Children in the group of 10 years old with symptoms of subthreshold ADHD also showed the fall of learning abilities and prospective memory. The results of correlation analysis show that subjects with symptoms of subthreshold ADHD have changes in the systemic ― functional level which appear as a decreasing amount of links between executive functions and features of prospective memory.

General Information

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, the subthreshold level, executive functions, prospective memory, primary school age

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Received: 24.01.2021


For citation: Zapesotskaya I.V., Chuikova Z.V. The Relationship Between Executive Functions and Prospective Memory in Primary School-Age Children with Symptoms of Subthreshold ADHD [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 48–67. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2021100403. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Irina V. Zapesotskaya, Doctor of Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of Organization of Professional Education and Educational Technologies, Continuing Professional Education Faculty, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Zhanna V. Chuikova, student of the Chair of Health Psychology and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Clinical Psychology, Kursk State Medical University, Kursk, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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