Supervisor’s and Supervisee’s Views on Professional Supervision



This study is devoted to the expectations of supervisors and supervisees of the supervision process and their vision of the successful and unsuccessful supervision. We developed two questionnaires: one for the supervisor and other for the supervisee . A total of 103 respondents with various occupational experiences participated in the study, including 85 females and 10 males, and 8 respondents did not indicate gender. The age of the participants ranged from 22 to 61 years, with an average age of 38.92±11.22 years. The methods of statistical processing are: the principal component method with oblimin rotation, ANOVA. The results show that supervisee identifies three components of supervision process — knowledge, developing a professional identity and focusing on the client, while the supervisor considers all these aspects of the work to be complementary and inseparable from each other. The supervisor's expectations of the supervision differ from the supervisee's expectations, and these differences must be taken into account in education. Four factors (training, understanding/support, ethics, and novelty) are identified in supervisee’s expectations from the supervisor. The more experienced the supervisee is the less he focuses on gaining specific knowledge and techniques, and more on understanding his client. Work experience also helps to develop criteria for unsuccessful supervision — they are unambiguous and consolidated. Noteworthy the criteria for good supervision are not revealed. That means that the options for successful supervision are diverse, unlike unsuccessful supervision.

General Information

Keywords: professional supervision, work experience, training in practical psychology

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Acknowledgements. The authors thank the members of the National Association of Supervisors and its head N.A. Panphilova, members of the Society of Family Counsellors and Psychotherapists, professors and undergraduates of the Master's program "Systemic Family Psychotherapy" of the Higher School of Economics for their assistance in collecting data and conducting focus groups in developing research tools.

Received: 29.04.2021


For citation: Varga A.Y., Galasyuk I.N., Mitina O.V. Supervisor’s and Supervisee’s Views on Professional Supervision [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 120–140. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2022110106. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

Supplementary Material

The supplementary materials are available in the OFS repository at the link:


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Information About the Authors

Anna Y. Varga, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, HSE University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina N. Galasyuk, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professior, Department of Neuro and Pathopsychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Olga V. Mitina, PhD in Psychology, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Communication Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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