Negative Events Related to School Functioning and Their Relationship with the Risk of Depression in Adolescents



Negative experiences experienced by adolescents can cause the risk of developing mental health disorders, social maladaptation and academic problems. The aim of the study is to identify the risk of depression in adolescents in connection with experienced negative life events. The study involved 507 students of urban and rural secondary schools aged 12–17 years (median, quartiles 14 [14; 15]), 47.5% boys, 52.5% girls. The M. Kovacs Depression Scale (Children's Depression Inventory, CDI) and the Adolescent Mental Life Events Scale (ASLEC) were used. With adolescents who showed a high level of risk of depression on the CDI scale, an additional clinical interview was conducted. It is shown that adolescents perceive most of the negative events they have experienced as significant. A significant proportion of them account for life events related to school functioning, while no significant differences were found in the groups of boys and girls. It is suggested that the events experienced by students related to school functioning, in the absence of a statistically significant relationship with the risk of depression, may still increase the risk of depression in the presence of events in the life of adolescents related to family functioning (family conflicts, physical punishment in the family) and psychological factors (criticism or punishment). The data obtained concerning the frequency of experiencing negative life events related to the school sphere and noted by respondents as significant, make it necessary to work with teachers in the context of health-preserving psychological and pedagogical support.

General Information

Keywords: adolescents, negative life events, risk of depression, health-saving environment

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The study was carried out in accordance with budget funding within the framework of the comprehensive research topic “Comprehensive study of clinical and psychopathological patterns and pathobiological mechanisms of formation and progression of socially significant mental and behavioral disorders with the development of innovative methods of early diagnosis, personalized strategies for therapy and prevention”, registration number: AAAA- А19-119020690013-2 0421- 2020-0011.

Received: 16.11.2021


For citation: Karaush I., Kupriyanova I., Dashieva B. Negative Events Related to School Functioning and Their Relationship with the Risk of Depression in Adolescents [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 142–166. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2022110306. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Irina Karaush, Doctor of Medicine, leading researcher of the Department of Social Psychiatry of Children and Adolescents, Department of Social and Forensic Psychiatric Problems of Minors, associate professor of the Training and Methodological Department,, V.P. Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, professor of the Department of Defectology, Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina Kupriyanova, Doctor of Medicine, Professor, Leading Researcher, Border States Department, Mental Health Research Institute, National Research Medical Centre, Tomsk, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Bairma Dashieva, Doctor of Medicine, Leading Researcher, Border States Department, Mental Health Research Institute, National Research Medical Centre, Professor of Department of Psychological and Pedagogical Education, Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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