Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Elderly: Programs "Memory Clinic" and "Cognitive Stimulation Therapy"

264

Abstract

The problem of preventing factors associated with the risks of cognitive decline and hindering active longevity in old age is becoming increasingly important. According to the United Nations in 2019, about 10% of the total population in the world is over the age of 65, and by 2050 this figure will already be 20%. The syndrome of mild cognitive decline is considered as a transitional state between normal physiological aging and dementia. The two modern approaches to the prevention of cognitive impairment during aging are presented. Methods for the prevention of cognitive impairments are proposed to be considered according to the level of organization of mental activity, to which they mainly appeal: based on the semantic level (training) and the level of personal meanings (stimulation programs). The experience of preventing cognitive decline in the elderly within the framework of the program of psychosocial therapy and neurocognitive rehabilitation at the “Memory Clinic” (Russia) and the “Cognitive Stimulation Therapy” (CST) program (Great Britain) is described.

General Information

Keywords: late ontogenesis, prevention, cognitive deficit, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, neurocognitive rehabilitation, cognitive stimulation therapy

Journal rubric: Theoretical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpse.2022110302

Funding. The reported study was funded by Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE), project “Prevention of cognitive deficits in the elderly and old age”.

Received: 13.12.2021

Accepted:

For citation: Roschina I., Kalantarova M., Shvedovskaya A.A., Hromov A.I. Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Elderly: Programs "Memory Clinic" and "Cognitive Stimulation Therapy" [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 44–70. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2022110302. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Vasil'eva E.V. Kontseptsiya aktivnogo dolgoletiya v sisteme obespecheniya ekonomicheskoĭ bezopasnosti [The concept of active longevity in the system of ensuring economic security]. Ekonomika, predprinimatel'stvo i pravo, 2021, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 2101–2120. DOI: 10.18334/epp.11.9.113431 (In Russ.; abstr. in Engl.).
  2. Vsemirnyĭ doklad o starenii i zdorov'e [World report on ageing and health]. Zheneva: Vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya [World Health Organization], 2015. 301 p. URL: https:apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/186463/9789244565049_rus.pdf?sequence=10 (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  3. Gavrilova S.I. Bolezn' Al'tsgeimera: innovatsionnye podkhody k lecheniyu. Press-konferentsiya [Alzheimer's disease: innovative approaches to treatment. Press Conference], TASS, Moscow, 2019. URL: https:medvestnik.ru/content/news/Realnoe-chislo-bolnyh-s-demenciei-rezko-rashoditsya-s-dannymi-Minzdrava.html?ysclid=l8km697iq5165737520 (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  4. Dementsiya: Informatsionnyi byulleten' [Dementia: News bulletin]. Zheneva: Vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya [World Health Organization], 2020. URL: https:www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dementia (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.)
  5. Doklad o sostoyanii mer obshchestvennogo zdravookhraneniya po bor'be s dementsieĭ v mire: rezyume [Global status report on the public health response to dementia: executive summary]. Zheneva: Vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya [World Health Organization], 2021. URL: https://publichealthupdate.com/global-status-report-on-the-public-health-response-to-dementia (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  6. Izmeneniya k luchshemu 1: kognitivnaya stimuliruyushchaya terapiya (KST). Programma gruppovykh zanyatii s dokazannoi effektivnost'yu dlya patsientov s dementsiei. Rukovodstvo dlya vedushchikh grupp [Making a difference: An evidence-based group programme to offer Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to people with dementia. The manual for group leaders] / E. Spektor, B. Vuds, Sh.R. Stouner et al. (eds.);
    I.F. Roshchina, A.A. Shvedovskaya, M.V. Kalantarova et al. (transl. in Russ.). 2nd ed. Moscow: MSUPE, 2022. 66 p. (in Press). (In Russ.).
  7. Kalantarova M.V., Zavalii L.B., Borisonik E.V. et al. Tsifrovye tekhnologii v kognitivnoi reabilitatsii patsientov s ochagovymi porazheniyami golovnogo mozga [Digital technologies in rehabilitation of patients with focal brain injury]. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2020, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 122–141. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2020280308 (In Russ.; abstr. in Engl.).
  8. Kontseptsiya politiki aktivnogo dolgoletiya: nauchno-metodologicheskii doklad k XXI apr. mezhdunar. nauch. konf. po problemam razvitiya ekonomiki i obshchestva, Moskva, 2020. [The concept of active longevity policy: scientific and methodological report. XXI April international scientific conference on the problems of economic and social development, Moscow, 2020] / L.N. Ovcharova, M.A. Morozova, O.V. Sinyavskaya (eds.). Moscow: HSE, 2020. 40 p. (In Russ.)
  9. Korsakova N.K., Roshchina I.F. Kontseptsiya A.R. Lurii o trekh funktsional'nykh blokakh mozga i neiropsikhologicheskii sindrom normal'nogo stareniya [The concept of A.R. Luria on the three functional blocks of the brain and the neuropsychological syndrome of normal aging]. In N.V. Zverevа, I.F. Roshchinа (eds.), Metodologicheskie i prikladnye problemy meditsinskoi (klinicheskoi) psikhologii: kollektivnaya monografiya [Methodological and applied problems of medical (clinical) psychology: monograph], Moscow: Sam Poligrafist, 2018, pp. 203–211. URL: http:www.medpsy.ru/library/library238.pdf (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.)
  10. Korsakova N.K., Roshchina I.F. Tipologiya normal'nogo stareniya i strategii korrektsii protsessov pamyati [Typology of normal aging and strategies for correcting memory processes]. Izbrannye voprosy neiroreabilitatsii: materialy IX mezhdunarodnogo kongressa «Neiroreabilitatsiya — 2017», Moskva, 1–2 iyunya 2017. [Selected issues of neurorehabilitation: Proceedings of the IX International Congress "Neurorehabilitation — 2017", Moscow, June 1–2, 2017] / G.E. Ivanova, L.V. Stakhovskaya, Yu.P. Zinchenko (eds.). Moscow, 2017, pp. 102–105. (In Russ.)
  11. Psikhosotsial'naya terapiya i neiroreabilitatsiya patsientov pozhilogo vozrasta s kognitivnymi rasstroistvami [Psychosocial Therapy and Neurorehabilitation of Elderly Patients with Cognitive Disorders]. Strukturno-funktsional'naya model' reabilitatsionnoi programmy «Klinika pamyati»: kollektivnaya monografiya [Structural and functional model of the rehabilitation program "Clinic of Memory": monograph] / G.P. Kostyuk (ed.). Moscow: KDU, 2019. 332 p. (In Russ.).
  12. Roshchina I.F., Deryuganova O.A., Kalantarova M.V. et al. Profilaktika kognitivnykh defitsitov v pozdnem vozraste: pervichnaya adaptatsiya programmy «Cognitive Stimulation Therapy» (CST) v Rossii [Prevention of cognitive deficits in later life: primary adaptation of the Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) program in Russia]. In A.B. Kholmogorova, O.D. Pugovkina, N.V. Zvereva et al. (eds.), Zeigarnikovskie chteniya. Diagnostika i psikhologicheskaya pomoshch' v sovremennoi klinicheskoi psikhologii: problema nauchnykh i eticheskikh osnovanii: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, Moskva, 18–19 noyabrya 2020. [Proceedings of International scientific and practical conference “Zeigarnikov readings. Diagnostics and psychological assistance in modern clinical psychology: the problem of scientific and ethical foundations”], Moscow: MSUPE, 2020, pp. 808–810. URL: https:psyjournals.ru/files/117513/zeigarnikovskie_chteniya_2020.pdf? ysclid=l8kgbo5pwg471476134 (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  13. Roshchina I.F., Osipova N.G., Syunyakov T.S. et al. Otsenka vysshikh psikhicheskikh funktsii patsientov s myagkim kognitivnym snizheniem v protsesse neirokognitivnoi reabilitatsii [Evaluation of Higher Mental Functions in Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline in the Process of Neurocognitive Rehabilitation]. Diagnostika v meditsinskoi (klinicheskoi) psikhologii: traditsii i perspektivy (k 110-letiyu S.Ya. Rubinshtein). Nauchnoe izdanie. Sbornik materialov Tret'ei Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem 25–26 noyabrya 2021 [Collection of proceedings of the Third All-Russian scientific and practical conference with international participation “Diagnostics in medical (clinical) psychology: traditions and perspectives (to the 110th anniversary of S.Ya. Rubinshtein)”, November 25–26, 2021]. / N.V. Zvereva, I.F. Roshchina (eds.), Moscow: MSURE, 2021, pp. 349–351. URL: https:psyjournals.ru/files/124859/medpsydiag2021.pdf (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  14. Roshchina I.F., Syunyakov T.S., Osipova N.G. et al. Otsenka effektivnosti neirokognitivnoi reabilitatsii patsientov s myagkim kognitivnym snizheniem v usloviyakh ogranichenii vo vremya pandemii COVID-19 [Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Neurocognitive Rehabilitation of Patients with Mild Cognitive Decrease under Restricted Conditions During the COVID-19 Pandemic]. Zhurnal Psikhiatriya = Psychiatry (Moscow), 2022, vol. 4 (in Press). (In Russ.).
  15. Rukovodstvo po geriatricheskoi psikhiatrii [Manual of Geriatric Psychiatry] / S.I. Gavrilova (ed.). Moscow: Publ. MEDpress-inform, 2020. 440 p. (In Russ.)
  16. Starenie mozga [Brain aging] / V.V. Frol'kis (ed.). Leningrad: Publ. Nauka, 1991. 279 p. (In Russ.)
  17. Starost' v regionakh Rossii. Otsenka blagopoluchiya starshego pokoleniya na osnove otkrytykh statisticheskikh dannykh, 2019 g. [Old age in the regions of Russia. Assessment of the well-being of the older generation based on open statistical data, 2019]. Moscow, 2021. URL: https:static.tochno.st/files/analytical/b4604fa2f20405af96fd2ee17a99172a.pdf (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.)
  18. Shvedovskaya A.A., Kalantarova M.V., Khromov A.I. et al. Programma «Kognitivnaya stimuliruyushchaya terapiya» pri kognitivnykh defitsitakh u lits pozhilogo vozrasta: adaptatsiya v Rossii [The Cognitive Stimulating Therapy Program for Cognitive Deficits in the Elderly: Adaptation in Russia]. Diagnostika v meditsinskoi (klinicheskoi) psikhologii: traditsii i perspektivy (k 110-letiyu S.Ya. Rubinshtein). Nauchnoe izdanie. Sbornik materialov Tret'ei Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem 25-26 noyabrya 2021. [Collection of proceedings of the Third All-Russian scientific and practical conference with international participation “Diagnostics in medical (clinical) psychology: traditions and perspectives (to the 110th anniversary of S.Ya. Rubinshtein)”] / N.V. Zvereva, I.F. Roshchina (eds.). Moscow: MSUPE, 2021, pp. 299–301. URL: https:psyjournals.ru/files/124859/medpsydiag2021.pdf (Accessed: 27.09.2022). (In Russ.)
  19. Aguirre E., Hoare Z., Streater A. et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with dementia — who benefits most? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2013, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 284–290. DOI: 10.1002/gps.3823
  20. Apóstolo J.L.A., Cardoso D.F.B., Rosa A.I. et al. The effect of cognitive stimulation on nursing home elders: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2014, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 157–166. DOI: 10.1111/jnu.12072
  21. Basak C., Qin S., O'Connell M.A. Differential effects of cognitive training modules in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment: A comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychology and Aging, 2020, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 220–249. DOI: 10.1037/pag0000442
  22. Belleville S., Gilbert B., Fontaine F. et al. Improvement of episodic memory in persons with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults: Evidence from a cognitive intervention program. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 2006, vol. 22, no. 5–6. P. 486–499. DOI: 10.1159/000096316
  23. Capotosto E., Belacchi C., Gardini S. et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy in the Italian context: Its efficacy in cognitive and non‐cognitive measures in older adults with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2017, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 331–340. DOI: 10.1002/gps.4521
  24. Cipriani G., Bianchetti A., Trabucchi M. Outcomes of a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program on Alzheimer's disease patients compared with those on patients affected by mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2006, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 327–335. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2005.12.003
  25. Clare L., Woods R. T. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease: A review. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2004, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 385–401. DOI: 10.1080/09602010443000074
  26. Gates N.J., Vernooij R.W., Di Nisio M. et al. Computerised cognitive training for preventing dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment. The Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 2019, vol. 3, no. 3, article CD012279. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012279.pub2
  27. Gibbor L., Yates L., Volkmer A. et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for dementia: a systematic review of qualitative research. Aging & Mental Health, 2021, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 980–990. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2020.1746741
  28. Hall C.B., Lipton R.B., Sliwinski M. et al. Cognitive activities delay onset of memory decline in persons who develop dementia. Neurology, 2009, vol. 73, no. 5. P. 356–361. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b04ae3
  29. Hall L., Orrell M., Stott J. et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST): neuropsychological mechanisms of change. International Psychogeriatrics, 2013, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 479–489. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610212001822
  30. Han J.W., Son K.L., Byun H.J. et al. Efficacy of the Ubiquitous Spaced Retrieval-based Memory Advancement and Rehabilitation Training (USMART) program among patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 2017, vol. 9, no. 1, article 39. DOI: 10.1186/s13195-017-0264-8
  31. Herrera C., Chambon C., Michel B.F. et al. Positive effects of computer-based cognitive training in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia, 2012, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1871–1881. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.04.012
  32. Hertzog C., Kramer A.F., Wilson R.S. et al. Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2008, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01034.x
  33. Knapp M., Thorgrimsen L., Patel A. et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia: cost-effectiveness analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, vol. 188, no. 6, pp. 574–580. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.105.010561
  34. Law C.K., Lam F.M., Chung R.C. et al. Physical exercise attenuates cognitive decline and reduces behavioural problems in people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy, 2020, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 9–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jphys.2019.11.014
  35. Li H., Li J., Li N. et al. Cognitive intervention for persons with mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 2011, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 285–296. DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2010.11.003
  36. Liang J.H., Shen W.T., Li J.Y. et al. The optimal treatment for improving cognitive function in elder people with mild cognitive impairment incorporating Bayesian network meta-analysis and systematic review. Ageing Research Reviews, 2019, vol. 51, pp. 85–96. DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2019.01.009
  37. Lissek V., Suchan B. Preventing Dementia? Interventional Approaches in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2021, vol. 122, pp. 143–164. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.12.022
  38. Livingston G., Huntley J., Sommerlad A. et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet, 2020, vol. 396, no. 10248, pp. 413–446. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30367-6
  39. Lobbia A., Carbone E., Faggian S. et al. The efficacy of cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with mild-to-moderate dementia. European Psychologist. 2018. DOI: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000342
  40. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). Dementia: A NICE-SCIE guideline on supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society, 2007.
  41. Niu Y.X., Tan J.P., Guan J.Q. et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2010, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1102–1111. DOI: 10.1177/0269215510376004
  42. Orgeta V., Leung P., Yates L. et al. Individual cognitive stimulation therapy for dementia: a clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Health Technology Assessment, 2015, vol. 19, no. 64, pp. 1–108. DOI: 10.3310/hta19640
  43. Rozzini L., Costardi D., Chilovi B.V. et al. Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2007, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 356–360. DOI: 10.1002/gps.1681
  44. Savulich G., Piercy T., Fox C. et al. Cognitive training using a novel memory game on an iPad in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2017, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 624–633. DOI: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx040
  45. Sidorenko A., Zaidi A. Active ageing in CIS countries: semantics, challenges, and responses. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2013, vol. 2013, article 261819. DOI: 10.1155/2013/261819
  46. Smith G.E., Housen P., Yaffe K. et al. A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity‐based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2009, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 594–603. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02167.x
  47. Spector A., Orrell M., Davies S. et al. Can reality orientation be rehabilitated? Development and piloting of an evidence-based programme of cognition-based therapies for people with dementia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2001, vol. 11, no. 3–4, pp. 377–397. DOI: 10.1080/09602010143000068
  48. Spector A., Thorgrimsen L., Woods B. et al. Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2003, vol. 183, no. 3, pp. 248–254. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.183.3.248
  49. Stott J., Spector A. A review of the effectiveness of memory interventions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). International Psychogeriatrics, 2011, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 526–538. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610210001973
  50. Takeuchi H., Kawashima R. Effects of processing speed training on cognitive functions and neural systems. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 2012, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 289–301. DOI: 10.1515/revneuro-2012-0035
  51. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/423). URL: https:population.un.org/wpp/publications/files/wpp2019_highlights.pdf (Accessed: 29.09.2022).
  52. Verghese J., Lipton R.B., Katz M.J. et al. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, vol. 348, no. 25. pp. 2508–2516. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa022252
  53. World Alzheimer report 2011: The benefits of early diagnosis and intervention. Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2011. URL: https:www.alzint.org/u/WorldAlzheimer Report2011.pdf (Accessed: 29.09.2022).

Information About the Authors

Irina Roschina, PhD in Psychology, Leading Researcher, Mental Health Research Center, Professor of Department of Nero- and Pathopsychology of Development, Faculty of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2905-6791, e-mail: ifroschina@mail.ru

Marina Kalantarova, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Medical Psychologist, Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5509-7052, e-mail: kalantarovamv@mgppu.ru

Anna A. Shvedovskaya, PhD in Psychology, Head of Department of Information & Publishing Projects, Associate Professor, Age Psychology Department named after L.F. Obukhova, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3154-4601, e-mail: anna.shvedovskaya@mgppu.ru

Anton I. Hromov, PhD in Psychology, Head of Department of Neuro- and Pathopsychology of Development, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Senior Researcher, Department of Medical Psychology, Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2825-1413, e-mail: hromovai@mgppu.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 1483
Previous month: 106
Current month: 60

Downloads

Total: 264
Previous month: 16
Current month: 6