Self-Realization of Persons with Atypical Development: A Comparative Analysis



This study aims to define the specifics of self-realization of persons with atypical development of various nosologies. The materials of an empirical study obtained on a sample of individuals with typical (n=232; M=26.34±13.47 y.o.) and atypical development (n=177; M=28.89±18.16 y.o.) are presented. The sample includes the following nosological groups: visual impairment (n=15), hearing impairment (n=9), musculoskeletal disorders (n=27), intellectual impairment (n=81), the presence of disabling diseases (n=45). The methodological tools included the Personality Self-Realization Judgment Test (S.I. Kudinov, 2012); semi-structured interview to study the characteristics, barriers, resources of self-realization. The specificity of self-realization of persons with atypical development was revealed by comparing these persons with atypical development and a group of normatively developing respondents. Persons with hearing impairment are more external, but less active in self-realization. Persons with impaired vision are more passive in self-realization, more often they consider it ineffective. Persons with musculoskeletal disorders are more pessimistic about self-realization, more socially oriented, recognize the dependence of self-realization on circumstances, but they consider it unique. Persons with disabling diseases strive less for self-realization in a personal sense, feel less potential for self-realization and optimism in relation to it; we noted less pronounced social-corporate attitudes and creativity of self-realization. Persons with intellectual disabilities are less likely to seek personal and professional/educational self-realization, demonstrate less activity and internality of efforts, evaluate it as less effective and unique, but they evaluate the methods used as non-standard. Differences in the success of self-realization in the professional and educational spheres are revealed. The circumstances of the external environment are the dominant barrier in individuals with atypical development. The main resource of self-realization is social support. Significant differences in subjective assessments of the success of self-realization in various spheres of life in different nosological groups were noted in the field of professional/educational self-realization.

General Information

Keywords: self-realization, typical development, atypical development, spheres, barriers, resources

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The study was supported by the grant of the President of the Russian Federation for young scientists-candidates of sciences MK-6263.2021.2.

Received: 25.03.2022


For citation: Shipova N. Self-Realization of Persons with Atypical Development: A Comparative Analysis [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 242–261. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2022110310. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Amirov A.F. Sovmestnoe obuchenie studentov vuza s raznymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'ya kak uslovie ikh uspeshnoi professional'noi sotsializatsii [Joint training of university students with different health opportunities as a condition for their successful professional socialization]. Pedagogicheskii zhurnal Bashkortostana = Pedagogical Journal of Bashkortostan, 2020, no. 2 (87). pp. 81–92. DOI: 10.21510/1817-3992-2020-87-2-81-92 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  2. Galushkin P.A. Psikhologicheskaya kharakteristika samorealizatsii lichnosti s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdo-rov'ya: diss. kand. psikhol. nauk. [Psychological characteristics of self-realization of a person with disabilities. PhD (Psychology) Dissertation]. Moscow, 2020. 152 p. (In Russ.).
  3. Gerasimov V.P., Tsvetkova O.A. Fenomenologiya i ontologiya samorealizatsii [Phenomenology and ontology of self-realization], Omskii nauchnyi vestnik = Omsk Scientific Bulletin, 2013, no. 1 (115), pp. 104–107. URL: information/media_omgtu/journal_of_omsk_research_journal/files/arhiv/2013/1(115)/104-130.pdf?ysclid=l8v3ev60i4221286831 (Accessed: 28.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  4. Isaev E.I., Galushkin P.A. Psikhologicheskie tipy samorealizatsii lichnosti s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'ya [Psychological types of self-realization of a person with disabilities], Akmeologiya = Acmeology, 2015, no. 2 (54), pp. 84–89. (In Russ.).
  5. Klochko V.E., Galazhinskii E.V. Samorealizatsiya lichnosti: sistemnyi vzglyad [Personal self-realization: A systematic view]. G.V. Zalevskii (ed.). Tomsk: Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo universiteta, 1999, 154 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Korostyleva L.A. Psikhologiya samorealizatsii lichnosti: brachno-semeinye otnosheniya [Psychology of personality self-realization: Marriage and family relations]. Saint-Petersburg: Publ. SPbGU, 2000. 289 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Kudinov S.I. Psikhodiagnostika lichnosti: uchebnoe posobie [Psychodiagnostics of personality: A textbook]. Tol'yatti: Izdatel'stvo TGU, 2012. 270 p. (In Russ.).
  8. Kudinov S.I., Kudinov S.S. Psikhologicheskie osobennosti samorealizatsii lichnosti s ogranichennymi fizicheskimi vozmozhnostyami [Psychological peculiarites of self-actualization of physically disabled persons], Sibirskii pedagogicheskii zhurnal = Siberian Pedagogical Journal, 2010, no. 5, pp. 272–279. URL: (Accessed: 28.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  9. Kudinov S.S., Kudinov S.I. Samorealizatsiya lichnosti s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'ya v setevom obra-zovatel'nom prostranstve [Self-realization of a person with restricted health possibilities in a network educational space]. In L.M. Mitina (ed.), Sbornik trudov XVII Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Novaya psikhologiya professional'nogo truda pedagoga: ot nestabil'noi real'nosti k ustoichivomu razvitiyu» = XVII International Scientific and Practical Conference «The New Psychology of the Teacher's Professional Work: From Unstable Reality to Sustainable Development». Collection of Scientific Papers, Moscow, July 5–6, 2021. Moscow: Publ. Institute of Psychology RAS, 2021, pp. 49–53. URL: (Accessed: 28.09.2022). (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  10. Malenov A.A. Resursy lichnosti i ikh realizatsiya v prostranstve psikhologicheskogo obrazovaniya: diss. kand. psikhol. nauk. [Personal resources and their implementation in the space of psychological education. PhD (Psychology) Dissertation]. Omsk, 2021. 220 p. (In Russ.).
  11. Mukhametzyanova F.Sh., Shibankova L.A. Nauchno-metodicheskoe obespechenie kompleksnoi bezopasnosti obra-zovatel'noi sredy [Scientific and methodological support of the integrated safety of the educational environment]. Kazanskii pedagogicheskii zhurnal = Kazan Pedagogical Journal, 2017, no. 5 (124), pp. 8–16. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  12. Os'muk L.A. Samorealizatsiya studentov s invalidnost'yu kak bazovyi mekhanizm sotsial'noi inklyuzii [Self-Realization of students with disabilities as a basic mechanism of social inclusion]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2018, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 59–67. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2018230207 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  13. Os'muk L.A., Mel'nikova M.S. Psikhosotsial'noe blagopoluchie studentov s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'ya v sisteme vysshei shkoly [Psychosocial wellbeing of the students with limited opportunities of health studying at the university]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological-Educational Studies, 2019, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 84–94. DOI: 10.17759/psyedu.2019110307 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  14. Teterina E.A., Morova N.S. Uspeshnaya samorealizatsiya lyudei s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'ya [Successful self-realization of people with disabilities]. In D.A. Mikheeva (ed.), Materialy II studencheskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Molodoi issledovatel': ot idei k proektu» = Materials of the II Student Scientific and Practical Conference «Young Researcher: From Idea to Project», Yoshkar-Ola, May 25, 2018. Yoshkar-Ola: Mariiskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2018, pp. 279–281. (In Russ.).
  15. Tkachenko V.S. O problemakh integratsii lyudei s invalidnost'yu v rossiiskom obshchestve [On the problems of integration of people with disabilities in Russian society]. Materialy I Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Obshchestvo i lichnost': integratsiya, partnerstvo, sotsial'naya zashchita» = Materials of the I International Scientific and Practical Conference «Society and Personality: Integration, Partnership, Social Protection», Stavropol', December 3–4, 2004. Stavropol: Publ. NOU North Caucasus Social Institute, 2004, pp. 328–329. (In Russ.).
  16. Ulanovskii A.M. Fenomenologicheskaya psikhologiya: kachestvennye issledovaniya i rabota s perezhivaniem [Phenomenological psychology: Qualitative research and work with experience]. Moskow: Smysl, 2012. 255p. (In Russ.).
  17. Filatova K.D., Makhov E.A. Tvorchestvo kak sposob samorealizatsii lyudei s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'y [Creativity as a way of self-realization of people with disabilities]. Tomsk: TUSUR, 2011. 4 p. (In Russ.).
  18. Khazova S.A., Shipova N.S., Adeeva T.N. et al. Sovladayushchee povedenie lits s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorov'ya cherez prizmu kachestva zhizni i sub"ektivnogo blagopoluchiya [Coping behavior of persons with disabilities as a factor of quality of life and subjective well-being]. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2018, vol. 26, no. 4. pp. 101–118. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2018260407 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  19. Tsoi L.P. Samorealizatsiya lits s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami v sovremennykh sotsiokul'turnykh usloviyakh [Self-realization of persons with disabilities in modern socio-cultural conditions]. Molodoi uchenyi = Young Scientist, 2017, no. 13.2 (147.2), pp. 22–25, URL: (Accessed: 28.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  20. Shipova N.S. Izuchenie kachestva zhizni i samorealizatsii lits s tipichnym i atipichnym razvitiem [The study of the quality of life and self-realization of persons with typical and atypical development]. In E.A. Sergienko, N.E. Kharlamenkova (eds.), Materialy IX Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii molodykh uchenykh «Psikhologiya – nauka budushchego» = Materials of the IX International Conference of Young Scientists «Psychology - the Science of the Future», Moscow, November 18–19, 2021. Moscow: Publ. Institute of Psychology RAS, 2021, pp. 392–396. (In Russ.).
  21. Shcherbakova A.M., Zabavskaya A.A. Sub"ektivnaya otsenka kachestva zhizni molodymi invalidami s mental'noi nedostatochnost'yu [Subjective assessment of the quality of life of young people with mental disabilities]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2014, vol. 4, no. 4. URL: (Accessed: 28.09.2022). (In Russ.).
  22. Dorner S. Adolescents with spina bifida. How they see their situation. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 1976, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 439–444. DOI: 10.1136/adc.51.6.439
  23. Park I., Gu M., Hai S. How can personality enhance sustainable career management? The mediation effects of future time perspective in career decisions. Sustainability, 2020, vol. 12, no. 3, article 1167.
  24. Rusu M. Psychological optimization for adolescents with physical motor deficiency—a model of intervention. Psychology, 2020, vol. 11, no. 1. pp. 30–48. DOI: 10.4236/psych.2020.111003
  25. Schmitt F., Lahti I., Piha J. Does attachment theory offer new resources to the treatment of schizoaffective patients? American Journal of Psychotherapy, 2008, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 35–49. DOI: 10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2008.62.1.35
  26. Van der Heijden B.I.J.M., De Vos A. Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter. In U.K. Cheltenham, M.A. Northampton (eds.), Handbook of Research on Sustainable Careers. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, pp. 1–19.

Information About the Authors

Natalya Shipova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Special Pedagogy and Psychology, Kostroma State University, Kostroma, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 518
Previous month: 29
Current month: 6


Total: 106
Previous month: 2
Current month: 1