Early Maladaptive Patterns and the Type of Attitude to Pregnancy in Women at Late Gestation

194

Abstract

The work is aimed at studying the early maladaptive schemes of women and the type of attitude to pregnancy at late gestation. The materials of an empirical study obtained on a sample of women in late pregnancy are presented. The average gestation period was 38.9±0.92 weeks. The study involved 122 women aged 18 to 40 years (mean age — 28.84±6.1 years). The design of the study included a method for diagnosing Jeffrey Young's Early Maladaptive Schemes (YSQ-S3R, adapted by P.M. Kasyanik, E.V. Romanova (2013)), the test of the relationship of a pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (E.G. Eidemiller, I.V. Dobryakov, I.M. Nikolskaya, 2003). The following results were obtained: significant differences in the types of psychological components of gestational dominance in women, depending on age, were revealed. For women aged 26-30 years, to a greater extent than for women under 25 years, the optimal type of psychological component of the gestational dominant is typical (p=0.05). The highest values were obtained for the domain "Broken boundaries". The domains "Communication disruption and rejection" and "Impaired autonomy" are the least pronounced in women in late pregnancy. For women with an optimal type of attitude to pregnancy, the early maladaptive scheme of "Social alienation" is less characteristic. For women with a euphoric type of attitude to pregnancy, such early maladaptive schemes as "Self-sacrifice", "Strict standards / Pickiness", and "Seeking approval" are more typical. Two reliable regression models were obtained and described for the euphoric type of attitude to pregnancy (F=1.77, R2=0.236, p=0.039) and the optimal type (F=2.19, R2=0.277, p=0.007). As possible predictors of the euphoric type of attitude to pregnancy and childbirth, we can distinguish the following: a) a lack of expectation from others of deception and manipulation; b) a lack of need to control their emotions, and c) increased demands on others, as possible predictors of the optimal type of attitude to pregnancy a) a need for cohesion, connectivity with others; b) attention to their needs and unwillingness to sacrifice them "at the behest" of others; c) an increased need to control their emotions and impulses and d) confidence that they have a special social status and privileges.

General Information

Keywords: early maladaptive pattern, pregnancy, late pregnancy, attitude to pregnancy

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpse.2022110405

Funding. The study was carried out with the financial support of a grant from Altai State University within the framework of the scientific project "Cognitive attitudes in the structure of self-consciousness of pregnant women and women in the postpartum period in the context of the spread of coronavirus infection in the context of health-saving technologies".

Received: 24.08.2022

Accepted:

For citation: Kuzmina A.S., Praizendorf E.S., Loginova I.V. Early Maladaptive Patterns and the Type of Attitude to Pregnancy in Women at Late Gestation [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2022. Vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 114–137. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2022110405. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Aivazyan E.B., Arina G.A., Nikolaeva V.V. Telesnyi i ehmotsional'nyi opyt v strukture vnutrennei kartiny beremennosti, oslozhnennoi akusherskoi i ehkstragenital'noi patologiei [Bodily and emotional experience in the structure of the internal picture of pregnancy, complicated by obstetric and extragenital pathology]. Vestnik MGU. Seriya 14: Psikhologiya = Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2002, no. 3, pp. 3–18. (In Russ.).
  2. Belogai K.N. Materinstvo i telesnost' zhenshchiny [Motherhood and the body of a woman]. Kemerovo: KSU, 2014. 240 p. (In Russ.).
  3. Verbitskaya M.S. Osobennosti techeniya beremennosti, rodov i poslerodovogo perioda u zhenshchin s razlichnym psikhosomaticheskim statusom [Features of the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period in women with different psychosomatic status]. Meditsinskii zhurnal = Medical Journal, 2008, no. 4, pp. 11–14. (In Russ.).
  4. Vygotsky L.S. Izbrannye psikhologicheskie issledovaniya: Myshlenie i rech'. Problemy psikhologicheskogo razvitiya rebenka [Selected Psychological Studies: Thinking and Speech. Problems of the psychological development of the child]. A.N. Leontiev, A.R. Luria (eds.). Moscow.: Izd-vo Acad. Ped. Sciences RSFSR, 1956. 520 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Galimzyanova M.V., Kasyanik P.M., Romanova E.V. Vospriyatie roditel'skogo otnosheniya u vzroslykh v svyazi s rannimi dezadaptivnymi skhemami [Perception of parental attitudes of adults in relation to early maladaptive schemas]. Vestnik SPbGU. Psikhologiya i pedagogika = Vestnik SPbSU. Psychology and Education, 2017, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 382–394. DOI: 10.21638/11701/spbu16.2017.406 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  6. Gorkovaya I.A., Korgozha M.A. Vliyanie techeniya beremennosti i kachestva zhizni zhenshchin na razvitie poslerodovoi depressii [The impact of the gestation course and the women`s quality of life on the development of postpartum depression]. Azimut nauchnykh issledovanii: pedagogika i psikhologiya = Azimuth of Scientific Research: Pedagogy and Psychology, 2018, vol. 7, no. 4 (25), pp. 293–296. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  7. Davydova E.V. Rannie dezadaptivnye skhemy u vzroslykh patsientov s paranoidnoi shizofreniei [Early maladaptive schemes and psychopathological symptoms in patients with paranoid schizophrenia]. Meditsinskaya psikhologiya v Rossii = Med. Psihol. Ross., 2021, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 7–15. DOI: 10.24412/2219-8245- 2021-3-7. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  8. Dobryakov I.V. Perinatal'naya psikhologiya [Perinatal psychology]. St. Petersburg: Piter, 2015. 352 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Dobryakov I.V., Prokhorov V.N., Prokhorova O.V. Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika v perinatal'noi psikhologii [Psychological diagnostics and perinatal psychology]. In N.V. Zvereva, I.F. Roshchina (eds.), Diagnostika v meditsinskoi (klinicheskoi) psikhologii: sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy. Kollektivnaya monografiya = Diagnostics in medical (clinical) psychology: State of the art and outlook. Collective monograph, Moscow: «Sam Poligrafist», 2016, pp. 118–132. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  10. Zakharova E.I., Bulusheva E.A. Zakharova E.I., Bulusheva E.A. Osobennosti strakhov beremennykh zhenshchin, svyazannye s perezhivaniem vnutrisemeinoi situatsii [Features of the fears of pregnant women associated with the experience of an intra-family situation]. Perinatal'naya psikhologiya i psikhologiya roditel'stva = Perinatal Psychology and Psychology of Parenthood, 2009, no. 3, pp. 15–35. (In Russ.).
  11. Zolotova I.A. Issledovanie osobennostei psikhologicheskogo komponenta gestatsionnoi dominanty kak indikatora formirovaniya disfunktsional'nykh otnoshenii v sisteme «mat' – ditya» u zhenshchin razlichnykh vozrastnykh kategorii [The study of the features of the psychological component of gestational dominance as an indicator of the formation of dysfunctional relationships in the ‟mother-child” system in women of different age categories]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika = Vestnik of Kostroma State University. Series: Pedagogy. Psychology. Sociokinetics, 2021, vol. 27, № 2, pp. 135–142. DOI: 10.34216/2073-1426-2021-27-2-135-142 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  12. Kadyrov R.V., Mironenko T.A. Obzor zarubezhnykh issledovanii rannikh dezadaptivnykh skhem v klinicheskoi praktike [The review of foreign studies of early maladaptive schemas in clinical practice]. Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogika, psikhologiya = Science Vector of Togliatti State University. Series: Pedagogy, Psychology, 2017, no. 3, pp. 60–65. DOI: 10.18323/2221-5662-2017-3-60-65 (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  13. Karaush I.S., Kupriyanova I.E. Rannie dezadaptivnye skhemy kak moderatory stressa i formiruyushcheisya psikhicheskoi patologii [Early maladaptive schemas as stress and emerging mental pathology «moderators»]. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal = Siberian Journal of Psychology, 2022, no. 83, pp. 122–140. DOI: 10.17223/17267080/83/7 (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  14. Kasyanik P.M., Galimzyanova M.V., Romanova E.V. Vyrazhennost' rannikh dezadaptivnykh skhem i rezhimov ikh funktsionirovaniya u vzroslykh, obrashchavshikhsya i ne obrashchavshikhsya za psikhologicheskoi pomoshch'yu [Early maladaptive schemas and modes in adults who seek and do not seek psychological support]. Prikladnaya yuridicheskaya psikhologiya = Applied Legal Psychology, 2016, no. 2, pp. 75–83. (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  15. Kasyanik P.M., Romanova E.V. Diagnostika rannikh dezadaptivnykh skhem. [Diagnosis of early maladaptive schemes]. St. Petersburg: Izd-vo Politekhnicheskogo un-ta, 2016. 152 p. (In Russ.).
  16. Keduarova E.A., Maksutova A.A., Russkih N.I. et al. Psikhologicheskaya gotovnost' k materinstvu beremennykh zhenshchin molodogo reproduktivnogo vozrasta [Psychological readiness for maternity pregnant women of reproductive age young]. European Social Science Journal, 2013, no. 10–1 (37), pp. 292–297. (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  17. Kedyarova Y.A., Rysyatova M.S., Uvarova M.Y. Kharakterologicheskie osobennosti i tipy otnosheniya k beremennosti u molodykh zhenshchin [Characterological peculiarities and types of attitude towards pregnancy of young women]. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologiya = The Bulletin of Irkutsk State University. Series «Psychology», 2018, vol. 24, pp. 45–57. DOI: 10.26516/2304-1226.2018.24.45 (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  18. Kolchik E.Yu., Ushakova V.R. Spetsifika otnosheniya k beremennosti zhenshchin s raznym semeinym statusom [Specific attitudes towards pregnancy of women with different family status]. Mir nauki. Pedagogika i psikhologiya = World of Science. Pedagogy and psychology, 2020, vol. 8, no.3. URL: https://mir-nauki.com/PDF/84PSMN320.pdf (Accessed: 27.12.2022). (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  19. Kornienko D.S., Radosteva A.G. Lichnostnye cherty kak prediktory tipa psikhologicheskoi komponenty gestatsionnoi dominanty v svyazi s opytom materinstva [Personal traits as predictors of the type of psychological component of the gestation dominant in association with maternity experience]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Filosofiya. Psikhologiya. Sotsiologiya = Perm University Herald. Series «Philosophy. Psychology. Sociology», 2018, no. 3, pp. 393–405. DOI: 10.17072/2078-7898/2018-3-393-405 (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  20. Kornienko D.S., Radosteva A.G., Silina E.A. Osobennosti psikhologicheskogo komponenta gestatsionnoi dominanty, vnutrisemeinykh otnoshenii i roditel'skikh ustanovok u zhenshchin v svyazi s vozrastom i statusom (beremennye i ne beremennye) [Psychological component of the gestational dominant, family relations and parental attitudes of women in different ages and states (pregnant and non-pregnant)]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Filosofiya. Psikhologiya. Sotsiologiya = Perm University Herald. Series «Philosophy. Psychology. Sociology», 2019, no. 1, pp. 83–93. DOI: 10.17072/2078-7898/2019-1-83-93 (In Russ., absrt. in Engl.).
  21. Lysenko O.V. Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika v sisteme psikhoprofilakticheskoi podgotovki beremennykh k rodam 2003–2004 [Lysenko O.V. Psychological diagnostics in the system of psychoprophylactic preparation of pregnant women for childbirth]. Okhrana materinstva i detstva = Protection of Motherhood and Childhood, 2003–2004, no. 1 (4-5), pp. 180–184. (In Russ.).
  22. Magdenko O.V. Reproduktivnye rolevye orientatsii detorozhdeniya u beremennykh zhenshchin s razlichnym tipom psikhologicheskogo komponenta gestatsionnoi dominanty [Reproductive role orientations of childbirth of pregnant women with different types of psychological component of gestational dominant]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologiya = Vestnik NSU: Psychology, 2014, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 86–92. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  23. Ushakova V.R. Spetsifika semeinykh otnoshenii par v period beremennosti i posle rodov [Specifics of family relations couple during pregnancy and postpartum]. Problemy sovremennogo pedagogicheskogo obrazovaniya = Problems of Modern Pedagogical Education, 2016, no. 52–2, pp. 310–316. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  24. Filippova G.G Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika gotovnosti k rodam [Psychological diagnostics of readiness for childbirth]. Zhurnal akusherstva i zhenskikh boleznei = Journal of Obstetrics and Women’s Deseases, 2011, vol. LX, no. 3, pp. 148–151. (In Russ., absrt. In Engl.).
  25. Filippova G.G. Psikhologiya materinstva: uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov [Psychology of motherhood: A textbook for universities]. Moscow: Yurait, 2020. 212 p. (In Russ.).
  26. Khairova S.I. Tsennostnye orientatsii zhenshchin s razlichnymi tipami gestatsionnykh dominant [Value orientations of women with different types of gestational dominants]. Mir nauki. Pedagogika i psikhologiya = World of Science. Pedagogy and psychology, 2020, vol. 8, no. 5. URL: https://mir-nauki.com/PDF/73PSMN520.pdf (Accessed: 27.12.2022). (In Russ., absrt. In Engl.)
  27. Kholmogorova A.B. J. Skhema-terapiya Dzh. Yanga – odin iz naibolee ehffektivnykh metodov pomoshchi patsientam s pogranichnym rasstroistvom lichnosti [Yang's scheme therapy — one of the most effective methods of care for patients with borderline personality disorder]. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2014, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 78–87. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
  28. Tsaregradskaya Zh.V. Rebenok ot zachatiya do goda [Child from conception to one year]. Moscow: AST, 2009. 288 p. (In Russ.).
  29. Chernykh N.A. Materinstvo kak sotsial'no-obuslovlennyi fenomen. Ehmpiricheskoe issledovanie trevozhnosti beremennykh [Motherhood as a socially-conditioned phenomenon. An empirical study of anxiety pregnant]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika = Vestnik of Kostroma State University. Series: Pedagogy. Psychology. Sociokinetics, 2016, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 94–96. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  30. El’zesser A.S., Lyukshina D.S., Bolenkova E.F. Kontseptsiya rannikh dezadaptivnykh skhem v strukture kognitivnoi psikhologii [Concept of early desadaptive schemes in the structure of cognitive psychology]. Psikhologiya. Istoriko-kriticheskie obzory i sovremennye issledovaniya = Psychology. Historical-critical Reviews and Current Researches, 2018, vol. 7, no. 5A, pp. 144-149. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  31. Bach B., Lockwood G., Young J.E. A new look at the schema therapy model: Organization and role of early maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, 2018, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 328–349. DOI: 10.1080/16506073.2017.1410566
  32. Bortolon C., Capdevielle D., Boulenger J.-Ph. et al. Early maladaptive schemas predict positive symptomatology in schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Research, 2013, vol. 209, no. 3, pp. 361–366. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.03.018
  33. Edworthy Z., Chasey R., Williams H. The role of schema and appraisals in the development of post‐traumatic stress symptoms following birth. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 2008, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 123–138. DOI: 10.1080/02646830801918422
  34. Moghadam F.R., Quchan A.D.M, Shomia S.K. The role of mother's early maladaptive schema in predicting early maladaptive schemas and loneliness of children aged 8 to 15 years in Amol City, Iran. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 2018, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. IC01–IC03. DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2018/36369.12072
  35. Molnár J. Kósa K. Fekete Z. et al. Postpartum anxiety and intrapsychic vulnerability reflected by early maladaptive schemas. European Journal of Mental Health, 2018, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 70–81. DOI:10.5708/EJMH.13.2018.1.6
  36. Nordahl D., Hоifоdt R.S., Bohne A. et al. Early maladaptive schemas as predictors of maternal bonding to the unborn child. BMC Psychology, 2019, vol. 7, no. 1, article 23. DOI: 10.1186/s40359-019-0297-9
  37. Pellerone M., Iacolino C., Mannino G. et al. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: A cross-sectional research on a group of adults. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 2017, no. 10, pp. 47–58. DOI: 10.2147/PRBM.S117371
  38. Reula L.M., García H.S., Fernández A.P. Relationship between early maladaptive schemes and traumatic childhood experiences with suicidal behavior in adults. European Psychiatry, 2017, vol. 41, no. S1, pp. S217. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.01.2199
  39. Rida F., Alishba H. Pedisposition of early maladaptive schemas and postpartum depression during covid-19 crisis: Mediation of mindfulness. Psychiatria Danubina, 2022, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 148–156. DOI: 10.24869/psyd.2022.148
  40. Riso L.P., Froman S.E., Raouf M. et al. The long-term stability of early maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2006, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 515–529. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-006-9015-z
  41. Simard V., Moss E., Pascuzzo K. Early maladaptive schemas and child and adult attachment: A 15-year longitudinal study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 2011, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 349–366. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.2010.02009.x
  42. Young J.E., Klosko J.S., Weishaar M.E. Schema Therapy: A practitioner’s guide. NY: Guilford Press. 2003. 449 p.

Information About the Authors

Anna S. Kuzmina, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Clinical Psychology, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5864-7120, e-mail: annakuz87@yandex.ru

Ekaterina S. Praizendorf, Senior Lecturer, Department of Clinical Psychology, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9014-8927, e-mail: catherinears@list.ru

Irina V. Loginova, Obstetrician-gynecologist, Altai Regional Clinical Center for Maternal and Child Health, Barnaul, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6008-5198, e-mail: login.gela@mail.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 434
Previous month: 25
Current month: 10

Downloads

Total: 194
Previous month: 17
Current month: 6