Mental States of a Personality in a Didactic VR Environment



The work is aimed at examining the influence of modern didactic programs in virtual reality (VR) on mental states in adolescence. The materials of empirical research obtained on a sample of 3—4 year students from Moscow and Smolensk universities are presented. Study 1 (N = 50) involved respondents aged 19 to 26 years. We used the methodology of AS Kulikov L.V., didactic VR programs were used as instructive independent variables. The results obtained indicate that the didactic VR environment of the highest level has a significant effect on mental states, increasing indicators on the scales of activation, excitement, tone, euphoria, and reducing asthenia. Conditions such as well-being, normal mood, calmness remain stable in immersive didactic VR. The effectiveness of VR programs in influencing mental states is determined by the successful modeling of 3D objects, high animation, interactivity, originally incorporated into the content of VR of the highest level. The data on an increase in the experience of the degree of presence in VR when using new helmets, even in short VR programs, are of fundamental importance. This indicates the possibility of the formation of addictions to VR with their repeated, short-term use.

General Information

Keywords: virtual reality, training programs in VR, animation, mental states, interactivity

Journal rubric: Psychology of Digital Reality


Funding. The work was performed within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation No. 730000F.99.1.BV09AA00006 “The influence of high-level virtual reality technologies on mental development in adolescence”.

Acknowledgements. The author is grateful for help in the creation of high-tech products of VR programmers V.P. Titov, E.M. Agafonov.

For citation: Selivanov V.V. Mental States of a Personality in a Didactic VR Environment. Eksperimental'naâ psihologiâ = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2021. Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 20–28. DOI: 10.17759/exppsy.2021000002. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Velichkovskiy B.B., Gusev A.N., Vinogradova V.F., Arbekova O.A. Kognitivnyy kontrol’ i chuvstvo prisutstviya v virtual’nykh sredakh [Cognitive control and sense of presence in virtual environments] // Eksperimental’naya psikhologiya [Experimental Psychology], 2016. V. 9. (1). pp. 5—20. doi:10.17759 / exppsy.2016090102 (In Russ.).
  2. Vzaimodeystviye lichnosti i virtual’noy real’nosti: psikhicheskoye razvitiye i lichnostnaya determinatsiya [The interaction of personality and virtual reality: mental development and personal determination] / pod red. Barabanshchikova V.A., Selivanova V.V. [ed. Barabanshchikov V.A., Selivanov V.V.]. (monografiya) [monograph]. Moscow: Universum, 2019. 479 p. (In Russ.).
  3. Men’shikova G.YA. Zritel’nyye illyuzii: psikhologicheskiye mekhanizmy i modeli: diss. ... d-ra psikhol. nauk: 19.00.02 [Visual illusions: psychological mechanisms and models: diss. ... Dr. psychol. Sciences: 19.00.02] / Men’shikova Galina Yakovlevna [Menshikova Galina Yakovlevna]; Moscow, 2014. 301 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Psikhicheskiye sostoyaniya: uchebnoye posobiye [Mental states: textbook] /red. A.O. Prokhorov [ed. A.O. Prokhorov]. Moscow: Kogito-Tsentr, 2011. 623 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Selivanov V.V., Selivanova L.N. Effektivnost’ ispol’zovaniya virtual’noy real’nosti v obuchenii v yunosheskom i vzroslom vozrastakh [Effectiveness of using virtual reality in teaching in adolescence and adulthood] // Nepreryvnoye obrazovaniye: XXI vek [Continuing education: XXI century], 2015. № 1 (9) (electronic journal) DOI:10.15393/ (In Russ.).
  6. Selivanov V.V., Selivanova L.N. Vliyaniye sredstv virtual’noy real’nosti na formirovaniye lichnosti [The influence of virtual reality tools on the formation of personality] // Nepreryvnoye obrazovaniye: XXI vek [Continuing education: XXI century], 2016. № 2 (14), (electronic journal); DOI:10.15393 / (In Russ.).
  7. Sorokova M.G. Elektronnyy kurs kak tsifrovoy obrazovatel’nyy resurs smeshannogo obucheniya v usloviyakh vysshego obrazovaniya [Electronic course as a digital educational resource for blended learning in higher education] // Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovaniye [Psychological Science and Education]. 2020. Vol. 25. No. 1. pp. 36—50. doi:10.17759/pse.20202501042020 (In Russ.).
  8. Smirnova E.O., Matushkina N.Yu., Smirnova S.Yu. Virtual’naya real’nost’ v rannem i doshkol’nom detstve [Virtual reality in early and preschool childhood] // Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovaniye. [Psychological Science and Education]. 2018.Vol. 23. No. 3. pp. 42—53. doi: 10.17759/pse.2018230304 (In Russ.).
  9. Chalmers D.J. The virtual and the real. Disputatio. 2017. 9, pp. 309—352. doi:10.1515/disp-2017-0009 CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar).
  10. Hodges L.F., Anderson P., Burdea G.C., Hoffman H.G., Rothbaum B.O. Treating Psychological and Physical Disorders with VR //IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 2001. Vol. 21 (6). pp. 25—33.
  11. Menshikova Galina Ya. An investigation of 3D images of the simultaneous-lightness- contrast illusion using a virtual-reality technique. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2013. Volume 6, Issue 3: 49—59. doi:10.11621/pir.2013.0305
  12. Menshikova Galina Ya., Kovalev Artem I., Klimova Oxana A., Barabanschikova Valentina V. The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2017. Volume 10, Issue 3: pp. 151—163. doi:10.11621/pir.2017.0310
  13. Menshikova, Galina Ya., Saveleva, Olga A., Zinchenko, Yury P. The study of ethnic attitudes during interactions with avatars in virtual environments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2018. Volume 11, Issue 1: pp. 20—31. doi:10.11621/pir.2018.0102
  14. Metzinger T.K. Why is Virtual Reality interesting for Philosophers? Frontiers in Psychology, 2018. Front. Robot. AI, 13 September 2018. DOI: 10.3389/frobt.2018.00101.
  15. Meyerbroeker K., Emmelkamp M.G. Therapeutic processes in virtual reality exposure therapy: The role of cognitions and the theraupeutic alliance //CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 2008. Vol. (1). Issue 3. pp. 247—257.
  16. Rothbaum B.O., Hodges L.F. The Use of Virtual Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders // Behavior Modification, 1990. V. 23 (4). pp. 507—525.
  17. Slater M., and Sanchez-Vives M.V. Enhancing our lives with Immersive virtual reality. Frontiers in Psychology, 2016. Front. Robot. doi:10.3389/frobt.2016.00074
  18. Zinchenko Yury P., Kovalev Artem I., Menshikova Galina Ya., Shaigerova Ludmila A. Postnonclassical methodology and application of virtual reality technologies in social research. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2015. Volume 8, Issue 4: 60—71. doi:10.11621/pir.2015.0405

Information About the Authors

Vladimir V. Selivanov, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the Department of General Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Head of the Chair of General Psychology, Smolensk State University, Smolensk, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 1084
Previous month: 14
Current month: 8


Total: 587
Previous month: 3
Current month: 1