Facial Expression Identification with Intrasaccadic Stimulus Substitution



Extreme temporal condition for visual identification task is held. A gaze-contingent eyetracking study was used to assess how presaccadic stimulus influences the one presented during a reactive saccade. A strong forward masking effect is found. Identification rate of second image is below chance, but still in accordance with previous studies, where no masking was present. Identification rate, erratic responses, statistical connection with alternative response (2AFC task), physical properties of saccades are similar to simple intrasaccadic identification task [3; 5]. Two aspects of transsaccadic visual perception were hypothesized, possessing common temporal structure: sensoric (geometric primitive detection) and gnostical (naturalistically valid object identification).

General Information

Keywords: facial expression identification, facial expressions, eye movements, saccadic suppression, direct visual masking, transsaccadic perception

Journal rubric: Face Science

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/exppsy.2021140205

Funding. This study was funded by Russian Scientific Foundation (grant number 18-18-00350-П)

For citation: Zherdev I.Y., Barabanschikov V.A. Facial Expression Identification with Intrasaccadic Stimulus Substitution. Eksperimental'naâ psihologiâ = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2021. Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 68–84. DOI: 10.17759/exppsy.2021140205.


  1. Barabanshchikov V.A. Vospriyatie i sobytie [Perception and event]. Saint-Petersburg: Aleteiya, 2002. 512 P. (In Russ.).
  2. Barabanshchikov V.A. Dinamika vospriyatiya vyrazhenii litsa [Dynamics of perception of facial expressions]. Moscow: Kogito-Tsentr. 378 P. (In Russ.).
  3. Barabanschikov V.A., Zherdev I.Yu. Perception of complex socially significant objects during observer’s rapid eye movements. Eksperimental’naa psihologia = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2014. Vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 5—25. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  4. Kurakova O.A. Sozdanie novoi bazy fotoizobrazhenii estestvennykh perekhodov mezhdu bazovymi emotsional’nymi ekspressiyami litsa [Creating a new base of photographic images of natural transitions between basic facial emotional expressions] Litso cheloveka kak sredstvo obshcheniya: Mezhdistsiplinarnyi podkhod. — Moscow: Moskovskii institut psikhoanaliza, Kogito-Tsentr, 2012. P. 287—309. (In Russ.).
  5. Barabanschikov V.A., Zherdev I.Y. Visual perception of facial emotional expressions during saccades // Behav. Sciences. 2019. Vol. 9(12). P. 131—143. DOI: 10.3390/bs9120131
  6. Brooks B.A., Fuchs A.F. Influence of stimulus parameters on visual sensitivity during saccadic eye movements // Vision Res. 1975. Vol. 15. P. 1389—1398. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(75)90196-0
  7. Burr D.C., Morrone M.C., Ross J. Selective suppression of the magnocellular visual pathway during saccadic eye movements // Nature. 1994. Vol. 371(6497). P. 511—513. DOI: 10.1038/371511a0
  8. Burr D.C., Ross J., Binda P., Morrone M.C. Saccades compress space, time and number // Trends Cogn. Sci. 2010. Vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 528—533. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.09.005
  9. Campbell F.W., Wurtz R.H. Saccadic omission: Why we do not see a grey-out during a saccadic eye movement // Vision Res. 1978. Vol. 18(10). P. 1297—1303. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(78)90219-5
  10. Cavanagh P., Hunt A.R., Afraz A., Rolfs M. Visual stability based on remapping of attention pointers // Trends Cogn. Sci. 2010. Vol. 14(4). P. 147—153. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.01.007
  11. Crawford B.H. Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli // Proc. Royal Soc. London. Ser. B: Biol. Sci. 1947. Vol. 134. P. 283—302. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1947.0015
  12. Deubel H., Schneider W.X., Bridgeman B. Postsaccadic target blanking prevents saccadic suppression of image displacement // Vision Res. 1996. Vol. 36(7). P. 985—996. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(95)00203-0
  13. Dorr M., Bex P.J. Peri-saccadic natural vision // J. Neurosci. 2013. Vol. 33(3). P. 1211—1217. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4344-12.2013
  14. Ellis D., Dember W.N. Backward masking of visual targets with internal contours: A replication // Psychonomic Sci. 1971. Vol. 22(2). P. 91—92
  15. Goto M., Toriu T., Tanahashi, J. Effect of size of attended area on contrast sensitivity function // Vision Res. 2001. Vol. 41(12). P. 1483—1487. DOI: 10.1016/S0042-6989(01)00032-3
  16. Honda H. Perceptual localization of visual stimuli flashed during saccades // Percept. & Psychophys. 1989. Vol. 45. P. 162—174. DOI: 10.3758/BF03208051
  17. Honda H. The time courses of visual mislocalization and of extraretinal eye position signals at the time of vertical saccades // Vision Res. 1991. Vol. 31(11). P. 1915—1921. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(91)90186-9
  18. Kowler E. Eye movements: The past 25 years // Vision Res. 2011. Vol. 51. P. 1457—1483. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2010.12.014
  19. Lappe M., Awater H., Krekelberg B. Postsaccadic visual references generate presaccadic compression of space // Nature. 2000. Vol. 403(6772). P. 892—895. DOI: 10.1038/35002588
  20. Latour P.L. Visual threshold during eye movements // Vision Res. 1962. Vol. 2(8). P. 261—262. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(62)90031-7
  21. Lederberg V. Color recognition during voluntary saccades // J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 1970. Vol. 60(6). P. 835—842. DOI: 10.1364/JOSA.60.000835
  22. MacKay D.M. Voluntary eye movements as questions // Bibl. Ophthalmol. 1972. Vol. 82. P. 369—376.
  23. Matin E. Saccadic suppression: A review and an analysis // Psychol. Bulletin. 1974. Vol. 81(12). P. 899—917. DOI: 10.1037/h0037368
  24. Matin L., Pearce D.G. Visual perception of direction for stimuli flashed during voluntary saccadic eye movements // Science. 1965. Vol. 148(3676). P. 1485—1488. DOI: 10.1126/science.148.3676.1485
  25. Mitrani L., Radil-Weiss T., Yakimoff N., et al. Deterioration of vision due to contour shift over the retina during eye movements // Vision Res. 1975. Vol. 15(7). P. 877—878. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(75)90272-2
  26. Mitrani L., Yakimoff N., Mateeff S. Saccadic suppression in the presence of structured background // Vision Res. 1973. Vol. 13(2). P. 517—521. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(73)90135-1
  27. Okiyama N., Segawa K., Uchikawa K. Effects of visual attention on contrast sensitivity in foveal vision // In Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research (KEER). Sapporo, Japan, 2007. p. 78
  28. Petrov Y., Carandini M., McKee S. Two distinct mechanisms of suppression in human vision // J. Neurosci. 2005. Vol. 25(38). P. 8704—8707. DOI: JNEUROSCI.2871-05.2005
  29. Ross J., Morrone M.C., Goldberg M.E., Burr D.C. Changes in visual perception at the time of saccades // Trends Neurosci. 2001. Vol. 24(2). P. 113—121. DOI: 10.1016/S0166-2236(00)01685-4
  30. Schlag J., Schlag-Rey M. Illusionary localization of stimuli flashed in the dark before saccades // Vision Res. 1995. Vol. 35(16). P. 2347—2357. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(95)00021-Q
  31. Volkmann F.C. Vision during voluntary saccadic eye movements // J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 1962. Vol. 52(5). P. 571—578. DOI: 10.1364/JOSA.52.000571
  32. Volkmann F.C. Human visual suppression // Vision Res. 1986. Vol. 26(9). P. 1401—1416. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(86)90164-1
  33. West D.C., Boyce P.R. The effect of flicker on eye movements // Vision Res. 1968. Vol. 8(2). P. 171— 192. DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(68)90005-9
  34. Zherdev I.Y., Barabanschikov V.A. Probability of visually perceiving emotional expression during saccade is rising, not being suppressed / In B.M. Velichkovsky, P.M. Balaban, V.L. Ushakov (Eds.). Advances in Cognitive Research, Artificial Intelligence and Neuroinformatics, vol. 1358 (Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cognitive Sciences, oct. 2020, Moscow, Russia). P. 141—152. Springer, 2021. 740 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-71637-0_17
  35. Zimmermann E. Saccade suppression depends on context // eLife. 2020. Vol. 9. DOI: 10.7554/ eLife.49700

Information About the Authors

Ivan Y. Zherdev, Affiliatedr Researcher, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6810-9297, e-mail: ivan866@mail.ru

Vladimir A. Barabanschikov, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Director, Institute of Experimental Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Dean of the Faculty of Psychology, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5084-0513, e-mail: vladimir.barabanschikov@gmail.com



Total: 409
Previous month: 8
Current month: 6


Total: 232
Previous month: 10
Current month: 10