Adaptation of the PASS Questionnaire on Russian sample



We present the results of the PASS questionnaire adaptation on the Russian sample. The description of the PASS and differences from the original version are provided. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage involves the allocation of a fixed number of factors – causes of procrastination and personality traits of a procrastinator, and the allocation of the normal frequency distribution of procrastination in the Russian-speaking population. The second stage involves checking the stability of selected factors with the test-retest studies with 30 days delay. The first stage of the study involved 148 subjects, the second stage - 31 subjects. Subjects in both groups were men and women aged 18 to 25 years with at least completed secondary education. Fixed factors of procrastination causes and personality traits of procrastinators were found in the first group of subjects. In the second group of subjects, these data have been verified by test-retest.

General Information

Keywords: procrastination, factor analysis, adolescence, causes of procrastination, personal characteristics

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Zvereva M.V. Adaptation of the PASS Questionnaire on Russian sample. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2015. Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 79–84. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2015200109. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Varvaricheva Ja. I. Fenomen prokrastinacii: problemy i perspektivy issledovaniya [Phenomenon of procrastination: problems and prospects of research] Voprosy psikhologii [Questions of psychology], 2010, no. 3, pp. 121–131.
  2.  Burka J.; Yuen L. Procrastination: Why you do it, what to do about it. Cambridge: Da Capo, 1983. 336 p.
  3. Ferrari J., Johnson J., McCown W. Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1995. 268 p.
  4. Fleet G. L, Components Of Perfectionosm And Procrastination In College Students. Social Behavior And Personality, 1992. Vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 85–94.
  5. Harrington N. It’s too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 2005. Vol. 39, pp. 873– 883.
  6. Milgram N., Tenne R. Personality correlates of decisional and task avoidant procrastination. European Journal of Personality, 2000, no.14, pp.141–156.
  7. Sabini J.; Silver M. Moralities of everyday life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1982. 43 p.
  8. Solomon L.J.; Rothblum E.D. Academic Procrastination: Frequency and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1984. Vol. 31, no.4, pp. 503–509.
  9. Stead R., “I’ll go to therapy, eventual”: Procrastination, stress and mental health.

Information About the Authors

Maria V. Zvereva, PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Department of Medical Psychology, Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 5145
Previous month: 42
Current month: 19


Total: 4047
Previous month: 24
Current month: 7