Background for Cognitive Difficulties in Primary School Students

509

Abstract

The article presents results of an empirical study on the key factors of difficulties in the formation of basic educational competencies in primary school children. The sample of the study involved 154 schoolchildren of a comprehensive school who were studied longitudinally for 5 years at different age stages: at preschool age, at the beginning of the first grade and at the end of the fourth grade. In fourth-grade schoolchildren, aged 10 to 11, we studied the ability to understand text while reading, the ability to solve mathematical problems, establish patterns in a number series, and also to perform tasks by analogy. The study used 12 methods of psychological and neuropsychological diagnostics which contained criteria for identifying procedural learning difficulties, characteristics of memorization and attention, hand-eye coordination of each student. A comparative analysis of the research results revealed the preconditions of difficulties in applying learning competencies in fourth-grade students. A set of psychological and neuropsychological indicators was identified, which enabled us to differentiate between the factors contributing to mathematical, linguistic and complex difficulties in the formation of learning competencies. These factors included problems in intellectual and cognitive sphere and procedural difficulties revealed in preschool and primary school children. The most significant precondition for all types of learning difficulties was the insufficient development of independent working skills at the beginning of schooling. The research results can be used to organize timely psychological and pedagogical assistance to students to prevent the occurrence of learning difficulties.

General Information

Keywords: school learning difficulties, visual memory, auditory-speech memory, primary school students, independent working skills

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/pse.2020250610

For citation: Kantorova E.V., Gorbachevskaya N.L. Background for Cognitive Difficulties in Primary School Students. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2020. Vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 113–125. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2020250610. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Bezrukikh M.M., Loginova E.S., Partsalis E.M.Metodika otsenki narushenii kognitivnogo razvitiia: Kompleksnaia diagnostika individualnykh narushenii kognitivnogo razvitiia i ikh korrektsiia [Methods for assessing cognitive development disorders: Comprehensive diagnosis of individual cognitive disorders and their correction.].Мoscow, 2016.26 p.(In Russ.).
  2. Vygotskij L.S.Diagnostika razvitijai pedologicheskaja klinika trudnogo detstva [Elektronnyi resurs].Moscow: Izdanie eksperimental’nogo defektologicheskogo instituta im.M.S.Epshteina, 1936.78 p.Elektronnaya biblioteka MGPPU [Digital Library MGPPU].URL: http://psychlib.ru/mgppu/VDr-1936/VDr- 78.htm#$p1 (Accessed: 15.10.2019).(In Russ.).
  3. Gorbachevskaya N.L., Yakupova L.P., Kozhushko L.F., Simernitskaya E.G.Neirobiologicheskie prichiny shkol’noi dezadaptatsii [Neurobiological causes of school maladjustment].Fiziologiya cheloveka = Human Physiology, 1991.Vol. 15, no 5, p.72.(In Russ.).
  4. Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Lunkina M.V.Shkol’noe blagopoluchie mladshikh shkol’nikov: motivatsionnye i obrazovatel’nye prediktory [School wellbeing in primary school children: motivational and educational predictors].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no.3, pp.32—42.(In Russ.).
  5. Davydova E.Yu., Sorokin A.B.Otsenka zhiznennykh kompetentsii uchashchikhsya na nachal’nom etape obshchego obrazovaniya [Assessment of life competencies of students at the initial stage of general education].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no.6, pp.16—27.(In Russ.).
  6. Danilova E.E.Soderzhanie i dinamika motivatsionnykh predpochtenii sovremennykh mladshikh shkol’nikov i mladshikh podrostkov [The content and dynamics of motivational preferences of modern primary schoolchildren and younger adolescents].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no.4, pp.51—61.(In Russ.).
  7. Denisenkova N.S.Issledovanie uchebnoi motivatsii pervoklassnikov v razlichnykh obrazovatel’nykh sredakh [Study of the learning motivation of first graders in various educational environments].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2020.Vol.25, no.1, pp.5—15.(In Russ.).
  8. Ermolaeva M.V., Lubovskiy D.V. Ocenka metapredmetnyh i lichnostnyh obrazovatel’nyh rezul’tatov pri perekhode obuchayushchihsya na novyj uroven’ obshchego obrazovaniya [Assessment of metasubject and personal educational results during the transition of students to a new level of general education].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no 1, pp.80—88.(In Russ.).
  9. Zaitsev S.V.Problemy razvitiya uchebnoi samostoyatel’nosti mladshikh shkol’nikov [Problems of the development of educational independence of primary schoolchildren].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no 2, pp.50—58.(In Russ.).
  10. Zvereva N.V., Khromov A.I., Sergienko A.A., Koval’-Zaitsev A.A.Kliniko-psikhologicheskie metodiki otsenki kognitivnogo razvitiya detei i podrostkov pri endogennoi psikhicheskoi patologii (pamyat’ i vnimanie) [Clinical and psychological methods for assessing the cognitive development of children and adolescents with endogenous mental pathology (memory and attention)].Moscow: OOO «Sam poligrafist», 2017.48 p.(In Russ.).
  11. Kazakova E.V., Sokolova L.V.Vliyanie neblagopriyatnyh social’no-ekonomicheskih faktorov na shkol’nuyu adaptaciyu pervoklassnikov [Influence of unfavorable socio-economic factors on school adaptation of first graders].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no 2, pp.59—71.(In Russ.).
  12. Karabanova O.A.Rol’ sem’i i shkoly v obespechenii psikhologicheskogo blagopoluchiya mladshikh shkol’nikov [The role of the family and school in ensuring the psychological well-being of primary schoolchildren].Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019.Vol.24, no.5, pp.16—26.(In Russ.).
  13. Mikadze Yu.V.Neuspevayushchie deti: neiropsikhologicheskaya diagnostika trudnostei v obuchenii mladshikh shkol’nikov [Unsuccessful Children: Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Learning Difficulties in Primary School Children].Moscow: Pedagogicheskoe obshchestvo Rossii, 2001.208 p.(In Russ.).
  14. Menchinskaya N.A.Problemy obucheniya, vospitaniya i psikhicheskogo razvitiya rebenka: izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy [Problems of education, upbringing and mental development of the child: selected psychological works].Moscow: NPO «Modek», 1998.448 p.(In Russ.).
  15. Mukhina V.S.Vozrastnaia psikhologiia.Fenomenologiia razvitiia [Age-related psychology.Phenomenology of development].Мoscow: Publishing Center «Akademiia», 2015.656 p.(In Russ.).
  16. Psikhologiya podrostka: Polnoe rukovodstvo [Adolescent Psychology: A Complete Guide].In Rean A.A.(ed.).Saint-Petersburg: Praim-EVROZNAK, 2008.504 p.(In Russ.).
  17. Rekomendatsii po interpretatsii rezul’tatov izucheniya gotovnosti pervoklassnikov k obucheniyu v shkole, skorrektirovannye s uchetom uslovii provedeniya v g.Moskve [Elektronnyi resurs] [Recommendations on the interpretation of the results of the study of the readiness of first graders to study at school, adjusted to take into account the conditions in Moscow].Compilers O.V.Danilenko, I.V.Ermakova et al.URL: https://nsportal.ru/nachalnaya-shkola/materialy-dlya-roditelei/2014/02/02/rekomendatsii-po-izucheniyu-gotovnosti (Accessed: 16.09.2018).(In Russ.).
  18. Rossiiskoe obrazovanie v kontekste indeksa chelovecheskogo kapitala.Byulleten’ o sfere obrazovaniya [Elektronnyi resurs] [Russian education in the context of the human capital index.Education Bulletin].Moscow: Analiticheskii tsentr pri pravitel’stve Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2018.No.18 (December).URL: http://ac.gov.ru/files/publication/a/20277.pdf (Accessed: 11.01.2020).(In Russ.).
  19. Simernitskaya E.G.Neiropsikhologicheskaya diagnostika i korrektsiya shkol’noi neuspevaemosti [Neuropsychological diagnostics and correction of school failure].In Khomskaya E.D.(ed.).Neiropsikhologiya segodnya = Neuropsychology today.Moscow, 1995, pp.154—160.(In Russ.).
  20. Waber D.Rethinking Learning Disabilities: Understanding Children Who Struggle in School.The Guilford Press, 2010.241 p.

Information About the Authors

Elena V. Kantorova, PhD Student, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3555-8288, e-mail: Elivanoba@mail.ru

Natalia L. Gorbachevskaya, Doctor of Biology, Professor, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Mental Health Research Centre, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8558-9007, e-mail: gorbachevskayanl@mgppu.ru