Practices That Change Teachers’ Beliefs: Use of ICT for the Development of Critical and Creative Thinking at School



This article examines the change in teachers' beliefs regarding new educational outcomes and new forms of using digital tools. For six months, 18 teachers developed and conducted lessons that form students' critical and creative thinking. At the same time, ICT tools were used not only by the teacher, but, most importantly, by students themselves. The intervention took place within the framework of the ‘action research’ approach, where the author acted as an organizer and a facilitator of the process. All teachers received preliminary training and were involved in the action research. As a result, it was revealed that the change of beliefs occurs during the transformation of practice, considering the fact that teachers were in exploratory, reflexive position regarding their own activities. That is, the condition for changing teachers' perceptions was a continuous personal experience of using, testing new tools in a professional context and reflecting on new practices.

General Information

Keywords: teachers’ beliefs, action research, critical thinking and creativity, ICT

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by the Russian Foundation “Priority-2030”, project number 20-01-00001

Received: 04.05.2022


For citation: Mikhailova A.M., Pinskaya M.A. Practices That Change Teachers’ Beliefs: Use of ICT for the Development of Critical and Creative Thinking at School. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2022. Vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 36–45. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2022270603.


  1. Bysik N.V., Kosaretskii S.G., Pinskaya M.A. Proektirovanie modeli professional'nogo razvitiya pedagogov shkol, funktsioniruyushchikh v neblagopriyatnykh sotsial'nykh usloviyakh [Designing a model of professional development of teachers of schools operating in unfavorable social conditions]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological science and education, 2018. Vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 87–101.
  2. Dzhekson F. Zhizn' v klasse [Life In Classrooms]. Transl. R. Ust'yantseva, T. Sokolova; In A. Sidorkin, T. Sokolova (Eds). Moscow: Publ. Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki, 2016. 248 p.
  3. Kompetencii «4K»: formirovanie i ocenka na uroke. Prakticheskie rekomendacii [4C-comtenencies: fostering and assessing in the classroom. Practical guidelines]. In Pinskaya M.A., Mikhailova A.M. (Eds.). "Korporaciya "Rossijskij uchebnik", 2019. 76 p.
  4. Margolis A.A. Modeli podgotovki pedagogov v ramkakh programm prikladnogo bakalavriata i pedagogicheskoi magistratury [Models of teacher training in the framework of applied Bachelor's and pedagogical Master's degree programs]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological science and education, 2015. Vol. 20, 5, pp. 45–64.
  5. Rossiiskie uchitelya v svete issledovatel'skikh dannykh [Russian teachers in the light of research data]. Barinov S.L. [et al.]. In I.D. Frumin, V.A. Bolotov, S.G. Kosaretskii, M. Karnoi (Eds). Moscow: Publ. NIU VShE, 2016.
  6. Uvarov A.Yu., Vikhrev V.V., Vodop'yan G.M., Dvoretskaya I.V., Kochak E., Levin I. Shkoly v razvivayushcheisya tsifrovoi srede: tsifrovoe obnovlenie i ego zrelost' [Schools in developing digital environment: digital renewal and its maturity]. Informatika i obrazovanie [Informational technologies and education], Vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 5–28.
  7. Universal'nye kompetentnosti i novaya gramotnost': ot lozungov k real'nosti [Universal competencies and new literacy: from slogans to reality]. In M.S. Dobryakova, I.D. Frumin (Eds). Moscow: Publ. Vysshei shkoly ekonomiki, 2020. 472 p.
  8. Bice H., Tang H. Teachers’ beliefs and practices of technology integration at a school for students with dyslexia: A mixed methods study. Educational and Information Technologies, 2022. DOI:10.1007/s10639-022-11044-1
  9. Building to Impact: The 5D Implementation Playbook for Educators. Hamilton A., Reeves D.B., Clinton J.M., Hattie J. Corwin Press, 2022. 232
  10. Catalysing Education 4.0. Investing in the Future of Learning for a Human-Centric Recovery. World Economic Forum, 2022. 34 p. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: (Accessed 15.08.2022).
  11. Davis F.D. Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 1989. Vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 319–340. DOI:2307/249008
  12. Donnelly D., McGarr O., O’Reilly J. A framework for teachers’ integration of ICT into their classroom practice. Computers and Education, 2011. Vol. 57, pp. 1469–
  13. Fostering Students' Creativity and Critical Thinking: What it Means in School. Vincent-Lancrin S., González-Sancho С., Bouckaert M., de Luca F., Fernández-Barrerra M., Jacotin G., Urgel J., Vidal Q. Educational Research and Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2019. 350 p. DOI:1787/20769679
  14. Hermans R., Tondeur J., van Braak J., Valcke M. The impact of primary school teachers’ educational beliefs on the classroom use of computers. Computers & Education, 2008, pp. 1499– DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.02.001
  15. Johannesson P. Development of professional learning communities through action research: understanding professional learning in practice. Educational Action Research, 2022. Vol. 30, 3, pp. 411–426. DOI:10.1080/09650792.2020.1854100
  16. Kim С., Kim M.K., Lee C., Spector J.M., DeMeester K. Teacher beliefs and technology integration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2013. Vol. 29, pp. 76–85.
  17. Mochizuki Y., Santillan-Rosas I.M., Gudino S., Hazard R. Rethinking pedagogy: Exploring the potential of digital technology in achieving quality education. UNESCO-MGIEP, 2019. 151 p. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: (Accessed 15.02.2021).
  18. Oolbekkink-Marchand H., Oosterheert I., Lubberink L.S., Denessen E. The position of student teacher practitioner research in teacher education: teacher educators’ perspectives. Educational Action Research, 2022. Vol. 30, 3, pp. 445–461. DOI:10.1080/09650792.2020.1857811
  19. Reimagining our futures together: a new social contract for education. UNESCO, 2021. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: (Accessed 15.08.2022).
  20. Sato M., Rogers C. Case Methods in Teacher Education. International Encyclopedia of Education, 2010, pp. 592–597. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.00662-X
  21. Smith C.A., Gillespie M. Research on Professional Development and Teacher Change: Implications for Adult Basic Education. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Vol. 7. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Ch. 7. National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2007. 40 p. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: (Accessed 25.03.2022).
  22. The OECD TALIS Video Study. Progress Report. OECD, 2019 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: (Accessed 08.2022).
  23. Tondeur J., van Braak J., Ertmer P.A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich A. Understanding the Relationship between Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs and Technology use in Education: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence. Educational Technology Research and Development, 2017. Vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 555–575. DOI:10.1007/s11423-016-9481-2
  24. What Students Learn Matters: Towards a 21st Century Curriculum. OECD Publishing. 128 p. DOI:10.1787/d86d4d9a-en

Information About the Authors

Aleksandra M. Mikhailova, junior researcher, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Marina A. Pinskaya, PhD in Education, scientific supervisor of the master's program, Interfaculty Department of Educational Systems and Pedagogical Technologies, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 326
Previous month: 21
Current month: 11


Total: 154
Previous month: 11
Current month: 11