On the Issue of Development of Empathy among the Staff of the Penitentiary System

128

Abstract

The problem of studying empathy in the modern world is more relevant than ever. This topic is especially important in law enforcement agencies and, in particular, in the penitentiary system. The present work is devoted to this aspect of scientific knowledge. The presented article is based on the results of a theoretical analysis of scientific research papers, both by foreign and domestic authors, who focused their attention on the problem of empathy. The analysis showed insufficient study of this phenomenon. The author presents certain specific features of the professional activities of law enforcement officers and, in more detail, of employees of the penitentiary system, which directly affect the level of development and manifestation of their empathy. Comparison of the characteristics of empathy, public demand for law enforcement agencies and the characteristics of the service indicated a contradiction, which this article deals with.

General Information

Keywords: employees, staff, correctional institutions, penal system, empathy, correction, suspects, ac-cused, convicted

Journal rubric: Penitentiary Psychology and Penal Practice

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/psylaw.2022120206

Received: 28.06.2021

Accepted:

For citation: Suslov Y.E. On the Issue of Development of Empathy among the Staff of the Penitentiary System [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologiya i pravo = Psychology and Law, 2022. Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 69–84. DOI: 10.17759/psylaw.2022120206. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Andreeva G.M. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. Moscow: Aspekt Press, 2008. 363 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Antonyan Yu.M. Osobyi kriminologicheskii tip lichnosti: raschelovechennye lyudi [Special criminological type of personality: people lost their human face]. Chelovek: prestuplenie i nakazanie = Man: Crime and Punishment, 2017. Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 7–11. (In Russ.).
  3. Akhryamkina T.A., Gorokhova M.Yu. Spetsifika fenomena “Emotsional’nogo vygoraniya” u sotrudnikov pravookhranitel’nykh organov [Specificity of the phenomenon of emotional burning out at law enforcement officers]. Vestnik Samarskoi gumanitarnoi akademii. Seriya: Psikhologiya = The Bulletin of the Samara Humanitarian Academy. A series Psychology, 2009, no. 2, pp. 104–115. (In Russ.).
  4. Bovina I.B. Issledovanie empatii: kriticheskii analiz i novye perspektivy [Empathy: Critical Analysis and New Research Perspectives] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2020. Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 88–95. doi:10.17759/chp.2020160109 (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  5. Bodalev A.A. Lichnost’ i obshchenie. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnaya pedagogicheskaya akademiya, 1995. 328 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Bol’shaya rossiiskaya entsiklopediya [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://bigenc.ru/ (Accessed 27.09.2020). (In Russ.).
  7. Bol’shoi sovremennyi tolkovyi slovar’ russkogo yazyka [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://slovar.cc/rus/tolk.html (Accessed 27.09.2020).
  8. Waal F. de Istoki morali: V poiskakh chelovecheskogo u primatov [The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism among the Primates]. Moscow: Al’pina non-fikshn, 2015. 376 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Gavrilova T.P. Analiz empatichnykh perezhivanii mladshikh shkol’nikov i mladshikh podrostkov. Psikhologiya mezhlichnostnogo poznaniya. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1981, pp. 122–139. (In Russ.).
  10. Garanina A.V., Polyakov A.S. Rol’ psikhologicheskoi zashchity pri nizkom urovne empatii u sotrudnikov OVD [The Role of Psychological Defense for Department of Internal Affairs Officers with Low Empathic Ability] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologiya i psikhotekhnika = Psychology and Psychotechnics, 2017, no. 2, pp. 88–95. doi:10.7256/2454-0722.2017.2.23659 (In Russ.).
  11. Gorbatova E.A. Empatiya: psikhologicheskaya struktura i mekhanizmy realizatsii [Empathy: psychological structure and mechanisms of realization]. Uchenye zapiski SPbGIPSR = Scientific Notes Journal of St. Petersburg State Institute of Psychology and Social Work, 2014. Vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 23–29. (In Russ.).
  12. Dvornikov V.A. Kharakteristika emotsional’nogo intellekta lichnosti sotrudnikov ugolovno-ispolnitel’noi sistemy. Vestnik molodogo uchenogo kuzbasskogo instituta: Sbornik nauchnikh statei. Novokuznetsk, 2018, pp. 159–162. (In Russ.).
  13. Efimov A.A. Professional’naya deformatsiya lichnosti sotrudnika OVD [Professional deformation of identity of a police officer]. Mir nauki, kul’tury, obrazovaniya = The World of Science, Culture And Education, 2015, no. 1 (50), pp. 247–249. (In Russ.).
  14. Karyagina T.D. Evolyutsiya ponyatiya “empatiya” v psikhologii: Diss. kand. psikhol. nauk. Moscow, 2013. 175 p. (In Russ.).
  15. Kuznetsova I.V. Dinamika professional’noi deformatsii sotrudnikov OVD v zavisimosti ot stazha raboty i korrektsionnykh meropriyatii [Dynamics of professional deformation of DIA officers deprnding on length of service and correctional measures]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki = Tambov University Review. Series: Humanities, 2008, no. 8, pp. 128–133. (In Russ.).
  16. Lipps T. Estetika [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologicheskaya biblioteka. URL: https://bookap.info/book/lipps_estetika/ (Accessed 31.01.2021). (In Russ.).
  17. Malyushina Yu.A., Filippov V.V. Proyavlenie empatii sotrudnikami spetspodrazdelenii, prokhodivshimi sluzhbu na Severnom Kavkaze [Display of empathy by employees of the special divisionsserving in the North Caucasus]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsial’naya rabota. Yuvenologiya. Sotsiokinetika = Vestnik of Kostroma State University. Series: Pedagogy. Psychology. Social Work. Juvenology. Sociokinetics, 2012. Vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 54–56. (In Russ.).
  18. Makhov A.E. 2016.01.007. Vil’ke T. Vchuvstvovanie kak metafora. Wilke T. Einfühlung Als Metapher. Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift Für Literaturwissenschaft Und Geistesgeschichte. — Stuttgart, 2014. — JG. 88, H. 3. — S. 321-344. Sotsial’nye i gumanitarnye nauki. Otechestvennaya i zarubezhnaya literatura. Seriya 7: literaturovedenie = Social sciences and humanities. Domestic and foreign literature. Series 7, Literary studies, 2016, no.1, pp. 57–62. (In Russ.).
  19. Mead G.H. Izbrannoe: Sbornik perevodov. Moscow, 2009. 290 p. (In Russ.).
  20. Petrovsky A.V., Yaroshevsky M.G. Osnovy teoreticheskoi psikhologii: Uchebnoe posobie. Moscow: INFRA-M, 1998. 528 p. (In Russ.).
  21. Poddubnaya T.V. Problematika empatii v issledovaniyakh psikhologicheskikh aspektov professional’noi meditsinskoi deyatel’nosti (obzor) [problematic in psychological aspects of professional medical care (review)] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2015. Vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 9–36. doi:10.17759/cpp.2015230202 (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  22. Ptitsyn S.D., Khromova A.V., Matveeva V.P. Rol’ emotsional’nogo intellekta v rabote sovremennykh rukovoditelei [The role of emotional intelligence in the work of modern leaders]. Skif. Voprosy studencheskoi nauki, 2019, no. 11 (39), pp. 497—503. (In Russ.).
  23. Rogers C. R. Vzglyad na psikhoterapiyu. Stanovlenie cheloveka. M.: Progress, 1994. (In Russ.).
  24. Sokolkov E.A. Vliyanie deyatel’nosti na empatiyu sotrudnika. Psikhopedagogika v pravookhranitel’nykh organakh = Psychopedagogy in Law Enforcement, 2002, no. 1 (17), pp. 16–19. (In Russ.).
  25. Turan N.K. O vzaimosvyazi zashchitnykh mekhanizmov psikhiki s urovnem empatii u studentov-psikhologov. Psikhologicheskie nauki: teoriya i praktika: Materialy II Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. (g. Moskva, mart 2014 g.). Moscow: Buki-Vedi, 2014, pp. 50–51. (In Russ.).
  26. Turskaya E.R. Sushchnost’ i struktura professional’noi tolerantnosti sotrudnika organov vnutrennikh del [The essence and structure of professional tolerance of the employee of law-enforcement bodies]. Prepodavatel’ XXI vek = Prepodavatel XXI vek, 2016, no. 2, pp. 143–149. (In Russ.).
  27. Ulyukin I.M., Emel’yanov V.N., Bolekhan V.N., Orlova E.S. Empatiya kak sostavlyayushchaya dialogovogo obshcheniya v protsesse peredachi novoi informatsii. Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Voenno-meditsinskoi akademii = Russian Military Medical Academy Reports, 2017. Vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 23–30. (In Russ.).
  28. Fedorova A.A., Gorbunova N.I. Vliyanie empatii na professional’noe vygoranie i stressoustoichivost’ u sotrudnikov protivopozharnoi sluzhby s raznym stazhem professional’noi deyatel’nosti [Empathy influence on professional burnout and stress resistance among the fire service staff with different professional work experience]. Vestnik KhGU im. N.F. Katanova, 2013, no. 5, pp. 93–95. (In Russ.).
  29. Freud S. Ostroumie i ego otnoshenie k bessoznatel’nomu [Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious]. Saint Petersburg: Universitetskaya kniga, 1997. 319 p. (In Russ.).
  30. Shibutani T. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya. Rostov-on-Don: Feniks, 1999. 544 p. (In Russ.).
  31. Shnaider M.I. Empatiya kak forma otrazheniya drugogo cheloveka [Empathy as a form of reflection of another person]. Gumanizatsiya obrazovaniya = Humanization of Education, 2016, no. 2, pp. 60–65. (In Russ.).
  32. Allport G. Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. 1937 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://ia601608.us.archive.org/20/items/in.ernet.dli.2015.155561/ 2015.155561.Personality-A-Psychological-Interpretation.pdf (Accessed 02.02.2021).
  33. Batson C.D. The Altruism Question: Toward a Social-Psychological Answer, Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991. 257 p.
  34. Batson C.D., Duncan B.D., Ackerman P., Buckley T., Birch K. Is Empathic Emotion a Source of Altruistic Motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981. Vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 290–302. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.40.2.290
  35. Davis M. Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 1983. Vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 113–126. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.113
  36. Enright R.D., Fitzgibbons R.P. Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000.
  37. Enright R.D., Santos M.J.O., Al-Mabuk R.H. The adolescent as forgiver. Journal of Adolescence, 1989. Vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 95–110. doi: 10.1016/0140-1971(89)90092-4
  38. Hoffman M. Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 331 p.
  39. Kestenbaum R., Farber E.A., Sroufe L.A. Individual differences in empathy among preschoolers: relation to attachment history. New Directions for Child Development, 1989. Vol. 44, pp. 51–64. doi: 10.1002/cd.23219894405
  40. Mead H. Mind, Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Chicago, 1934.
  41. Rique Neto J., Camino C., Formiga N., Medeiros F., Luna V. Consideração Empática e Tomada de Perspectiva para o Perdão Interpessoal Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking for Interpersonal Forgiveness. Revista Interamericana de psicologia = Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 2013. Vol. 44, pp. 515–522.
  42. Rizzolatti G., Fadiga L., Gallese V., Fogassi L. Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res, 1996. Vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 131–141. doi: 10.1016/0926-6410(95)00038-0
  43. Rizzolatti G., Craighero L. The Mirror-Neuron System. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2004. Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 169–192. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230
  44. Slote M. Moral Sentimentalism. Oxford, USA: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  45. Slote M. The Ethics of Care and Empathy. London: Routledge, 2007.
  46. Stueber K. Empathy [Elektronnyi resurs]. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/empathy (Accessed 05.02.21).
  47. Vignemont F. de, Singer T. The empathic brain: How, when and why? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2006. Vol. 10, no.10, pp. 435–441. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.08.008
  48. Vischer R. Über das optische Formgefühl. Ein Beitrag zur Ästhetik [Elektronnyi resurs]. Leipzig: Hermann Credner, 1873. ECHO. Cultural Heritage Online. URL: https://echo.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/ECHOdocuView?url=/permanent/vlp/lit39646/index.meta (Accessed 28.01.2021).

Information About the Authors

Yury Suslov, PhD in Psychology, Head, Department of Psychological Support of Professional Activity of Employees of the Penal Enforcement System, Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of the Russian Federation, Associate Professor, Faculty of Political and Social Sciences, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9824-748X, e-mail: zimburu@mail.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 440
Previous month: 10
Current month: 13

Downloads

Total: 128
Previous month: 11
Current month: 4