Using Health Belief Model, TriRisk Model, and Fatalism to predict COVID-19 Social Distancing Compliance Behavior



Objectives. The study has a translational focus to examine the applicability of the Health Belief Model, the TriRisk model, and fatalism-belief in the context of the COVID-19 disease, specifically to test if they help us predict recommended compliance behavior. Another objective is to examine how the three components of the TriRisk model work together. Background. Amid a raging COVID-19 pandemic, governments everywhere need to deploy more targeted strategies to make social distancing effective and reduce human to human transmission of the virus. Study design. The study predicted the lockdown compliance behaviour from constructs of the TriRisk model and fatalism-belief, using multiple linear regression and mediation analysis. Participants. 357 Participants across India; age range: 15—78 years; 41.5% men and 58.5% women. Measurements. Components of the health belief model, fatalism, and recommended compliance behavior were assessed using Multi-item and single-item scales. Results. Experiential risk perception was the strongest predictor of compliance behavior, followed by perceived barriers and gender. Deliberative risk perception and affective risk perception were significantly positively correlated with compliance behavior, though not statistically significant predictors. Experiential risk perception mediated the path between cognitive risk assessment and compliance behavior. Conclusions. The present study has implications for designing and trying out compliance enhancement intervention through use of appropriate experiential risk content in designing public campaigns to increase compliance behavior.

General Information

Keywords: Social Distancing Compliance Behavior, Fatalism, Health belief model, COVID-19, Risk perception, Predictive Model, Mediation Analysis

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. This research was conducted under the aegis of PeopleProfit Social Research Initiative [SRI] and no external funding was received.

Received: 11.05.2021


For citation: Lahiry S., Karmakar R., Parameswaran S. Using Health Belief Model, TriRisk Model, and Fatalism to predict COVID-19 Social Distancing Compliance Behavior. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2021. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 127–145. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2021120408.


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Information About the Authors

Sugato Lahiry, President, ThinkTank-Peopleprofit, Kolkata, India, ORCID:, e-mail:

Rita Karmakar, PhD in Psychology, Assistant Professor in Applied Psychology, Amity Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences, Amity University, Kolkata, India, ORCID:, e-mail:

Swathy Parameswaran, Research Scholar, Engineering Design Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Research Associate, TTMS-PeopleProfit, Chennai, India, ORCID:, e-mail:



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