Psychosomatic and Behavioral Reactions at Competitions in Female Gymnasts 4–10 Years Old Raised In Families with Different Upbringing Styles



Rhythmic gymnastics is a complex coordination sport with early professionalization. The specifics of sports training and competitive situations from a young age are accompanied by highintensity physical and emotional loads, which are stressogenic factors. Frequently repeated situations of neuropsychological stress can lead to emotional stress, which increases the risk of psychosomatic reactions. Some features of family upbringing observed in the families of athletes can increase the risk of psychosomatic reactions. The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between psychosomatic reactions in a competitive situation in young gymnasts 4–10 years old with the features of family upbringing style, the identification of predictors of psychosomatic reactions in a competitive situation. The sample of the study consisted of 44 families with female gymnasts 4–10 years old. The study was conducted with the use of methods by E.G.Eidemiller ASV, E. S. Schäfer PARI, R.K.Bell, author’s questionnaires “Parent/Trainer’s perceptions of the child’s experience of the competition situation”. Mathematical processing of the data included descriptive statistics, Correlation, Single Factor Variance, Factor and Regression analyses. Psychosomatic and behavioral responses to competition were found to differ among gymnasts raised in families with different family upbringing characteristics. It was found that irritability of the parent, irascibility, avoidance of contact, the desire to accelerate the child’s development, superauthority of the parent and some other features of family upbringing style are associated with increased neuropsychological excitement, the emergence of emotional stress. Family parenting style features such as hyperprotection and emotional distance with the child are prevalent in families of gymnasts 4–10 years old. The irascibility, severity, lack of parental acceptance and desire to change their child increase the nervous and mental agitation of young gymnasts in competitive situations. In competitive situations in female gymnasts 4–10 years old, overauthority of the parent, excessive severity, avoidance of contact and projection of undesirable qualities onto the child are predictors of gastrointestinal disturbances.

General Information

Keywords: psychosomatic reactions, family upbringing style, predictors of psychosomatization, psychological assistance to athletes, child and youth sport

Journal rubric: Empirical and Experimental Research

Article type: scientific article


Received: 12.03.2023


For citation: Shendrikova E.V., Lovyagina A.E., Ilyina N.L. Psychosomatic and Behavioral Reactions at Competitions in Female Gymnasts 4–10 Years Old Raised In Families with Different Upbringing Styles. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2023. Vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 411–424. DOI: 10.21638/spbu16.2023.308. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


Akhmetov, S. M., Gorskaya, G. B., Chernyshenko, Yu. K. (2013). Early professionalization of gifted children: a developmental resource or a source of disharmony. Vestnik Adygejskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. 3: Pedagogika i psikhologiia, 3 (123), 110–118. (In Russian)

Andreyev, V. V., Andreyev, V. V., Sytnik, G. V., Ashkinazi, S. M. Psychology of overcoming in sports. Moscow, Sam Poligrafist Publ., 2022. (In Russian)

Bloomfield, M. A., McCutcheon, R. A., Kempton, M., Freeman, T. P., Howes, O. (2019). The effects of psychosocial stress on dopaminergic function and the acute stress response. eLife, 8, e46797.

Di Corrado, D., Guarnera, M., Guerrera, C. S., Maldonato, N. M., Di Nuovo, S., Castellano, S., Coco, M. (2020). Mental imagery skills in competitive young athletes and non-athletes. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 633.

Eidemiller, E. G., Yustitskis, V. V. (2021). Psychology and psychotherapy of the family. 4 th ed. St. Petersburg, Piter Publ. (In Russian)

Eremina, N. Family and stress: family upbringing style as a factor of psychosomatic disorders in children. Stress Management: Theory and Practice (pp. 65–68). Almaty, Kazakh University Press. (In Russian)

Golovey, L. A., Vasilenko, V. E., Savenysheva S. S. (2016). Family structure and family upbringing as factors in the development of the preschooler’s personality. Socialnaia psihologiia i obshchestvo, 7 (2), 5–18. (In Russian)

Hvatskaya, E. E., Latysheva, N. E. (2019). “Problematic” parental attitudes toward their child’s sporting activities. In: Yu. V. Baikovskii, V. A. Moskvin (eds). Materialy XV Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem “Rudikovskie chteniia — 2019”, Moskva, 28–29 maia 2019 goda (pp. 216–219). Moscow, Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sports, Youth and Tourism Press. (In Russian)

Ivanenko, K. A., Frankovskaya, M. V. (2019). Stress in sporting activities on the example of rhythmic gymnastics. Molodoi uchenyi, 37, 132–134. (In Russian)

Kolesnikova, L. I., Dolgikh, V. V., Dzyatkovskaya, E. N., Polyakov, V. M. (2003). Peculiarities of the psychosomatic status in children of preschool and school age. Sibirskii nauchnyi meditsinskii zhurnal, 2, 17–23. (In Russian)

Kosarevskaya, T. E., Molochko, I. V. (2019). The relationship between child-parent relationships and the emotional state of the preschooler. Pravo. Ekonomika. Psikhologiia, 4, 85–90. (In Russian)

Kovács, K., Földi, R. F., Géczi, G., Gyömbér, N. (2022). Parental stressors in sports influenced by attributes of parents and their children. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19 (13), 8015. (In Russian)

Kovács, K., Kéringer, J., Rácz, J., Gyömbér, N., Németh, K. (2022). In the pitfall of expectations: An exploratory analysis of stressors in elite rhythmic gymnastics. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.

Kozlowska, K., Scher, S., Helgeland, H. (2020). The immune-inflammatory system and functional somatic symptoms. Functional Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents: A Stress-System Approach to Assessment and Treatment (pp. 175–201). London, Palgrave Macmillan Cham.

Kudryashov, A. A., Simonyan, L. G. (2019). The phenomenon of emotional contagion in psychology and psychophysiology (Report 1). Psychology. Psychophysiology, 12 (4), 12–23. (In Russian)

Molchanova, A. A. (2020). On the normativity of the conditions of personal development of the child engaged in the rhythmic gymnastics section of the preschool institution. Medrabotnik doshkol’nogo obrazovatel’nogo uchrezhdeniia, 8, 41–45. (In Russian)

Mosher, A., Fraser-Thomas omas, J., Baker, J. (2020). What defines early specialization: a systematic review of literature. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2, 596229.

Polyakova, E. A., Kobazova, Yu. V. (2019). Family and family upbringing style as a factor in the formation of psychosomatic disorders in children. In: Nauchnaia paradigma — 2019 (pp. 43–46). Anapa. (In Russian)

Purcell, R., Henderson, J., Tamminen, K. A., Frost, J., Gwyther, K., Kerr, G., Walton, C. C. (2023). Starting young to protect elite athletes’ mental health. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 57 (8), 439–440. PMID: 36796858

Salekhov, S. A., Barikova, A. R., Yablochkina, E. S. (2019). Prior influence of emotional stressor on the development of the situational psychosomatic response of the organism. International journal of medicine and psychology, 2 (4), 189–193. (In Russian)

Schaefer, E. S., Bell, R. Q. (1958). Development of a parental attitude research instrument. Child development, 29, 3, 339–361.

Serdyukova, E. I., Gorskaya, G. B. (2017). The influence of parental attitudes on the sports performance of young female athletes specializing in aesthetic gymnastics. In: Yu. V. Baikovskii, A. V. Voshchinin (eds). Rudikovskie chteniia: materialy XIII Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii psihologov fizicheskoi kultury i sporta (p. 354). Moscow, RGUFKSMiT Press. (In Russian)

Shindrikova, E. V. (2022). Expression of psychosomatic reactions in gymnasts of preschool and primary school age in a competitive situation. In: Fizicheskaia kul’tura i sport. Olimpiiskoe obrazovanie (pp. 458–463). Krasnodar. (In Russian)

Smirnova, S. V., Sergodeeva, E. A. (2013). Violations of family relationships in the genesis of psychosomatic diseases in children. Teoriia i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiia, 6, 67–69. (In Russian)

Vasilenko, T. D., Zemiulina, I. N., Selin, A. V., Simonenko, I. A., Shevchenko, A. V. (2017). The family and the psychosomatic health of the child. Vestnik Rossiiskogo fonda fundamentalnykh issledovanii. Gumanitarnye i obshchestvennye nauki, 1, 112–121. (In Russian)

Veraksa, A. N., Oshchepkova, E. S., Aslanova, M. S., Yakupova, V. A. (2022). Factors influencing a child’s sociometric status in older preschool age. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 12 (4), 410–430. (In Russian)

Vikulova, Yu. A., Novikova, K. V. (2020). The role of the family in the genesis of psychosomatic disorders in children. In: Proceedings of the 60 th Student Scientific and Practical Conference of the TOGU (pp. 310–313). Khabarovsk, Pacific Ocean State University Press. (In Russian)

Walton, C. C., Rice, S., Hutter, R. V., Currie, A., Reardon, C. L., Purcell, R. (2021). Mental health in youth athletes: a clinical review. Advances in Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, 1 (1), 119–133.

Information About the Authors

Ekaterina V. Shendrikova, Saint-Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:

Alexandra E. Lovyagina, PhD in Psychology, associate professor, Acting Head of the Department of General Psychology., St. Petersburg State Budgetary Healthcare Institution "Psychiatric Hospital No. 1 named after P.P. Kashchenko", St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:

Natalya L. Ilyina, PhD in Psychology, associate professor, Department of General Psychology, Saint-Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail:



Total: 25
Previous month: 11
Current month: 5


Total: 15
Previous month: 8
Current month: 2