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Europe and the pedagogical challenge of interculturality: awareness and personal participation beyond the utopia 907
In western states today, and not only in these quarters, there are noteworthy and dangerous oscillations between extreme forms of nationalism and more democratic trends. There is a tendency to shut off towards other nations, to see one’s own nationality as a cultural and traditional dimension in need of protection, currently under threat from invasion by other ethnicities, who cannot easily be assimilated to one’s own values and principles. How, then, is it possible to overcome the appeal of ideologies of resistance of nationalistic, conservative type? In all probability, an excellent first step is offered by the new pedagogical rationality of education for democracy, which is at the head of the current of critical pedagogy of emancipation, calling for responsible choices and direct participation in the democratic life of a civil society.
Keywords: integration, culture and democracy, responsibility, direct participation, racism-separation.
A Part of Article
There is talk, of not too subtle a kind, of doubts, and the deconstruction of certainties about the structure of integration itself, which is seen as the foundation for peaceful coexistence and harmony among ethnic groups. This is telling, especially in a historical and social context in constant change towards global and planetary multiculturalism. In this scenario, the encounter with otherness will be increasingly characterized by personal experience. When one hears it said that integration does not exist, it is appropriate to fix certain points on which to reflect, to try to understand how a principle upon which historians, lawyers, anthropologists, educators and sociologists have concentrated on so much, may reveal such uncertainty, especially at such a delicate moment of political and cultural upheaval.
As Casamassima claimed, at a certain moment of the relationship between autochthonous and allochthonous, there presents itself «[…] the problem of integration. Which does not exist. Not the problem, integration. In the sense that there only exists acceptance of the dominant culture of a territory […] (Southerners) have accepted the customs, traditions and habits of the Piedmontese. In their case, the “terroni” have continued to speak their dialects, to eat their dishes, to direct their children towards the values of their native lands. Integration has only occurred bit by bit, with small steps towards cohabitation on both sides».
 P. Casamassima, L’integrazione non esiste, «Corriere della sera», 23 gennaio 2016. Immediately afterwards, regarding internal Italian migration of the ‘50’s from South towards the North, he adds that «”We were waiting for arms, and men arrived”, was the lament of prof. Valletta, watching the siege at Fiat by labourers arrived from the South. Ex farmers and manual workers, who for long years were not integrated».