Russian Psychological Issues
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice Manuscript SubmissionAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us
Clinical Psychology and Special Education - №2 / 2022 | Перейти к описанию
Web of Science СС

  Previous issue (2022. Vol. 11, no. 1)

Clinical Psychology and Special Education

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (online): 2304-0394


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 2012

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


Rumination Versus Distraction: Dyadic Implementation Eliminates the Response Manipulation Emotion Regulation Effect 136


Egan R.P.
MA in Psychology, Graduate Student, University of Notre Dame, USA

Smith D.A.
PhD, Professor, University of Notre Dame, USA

The Response Manipulation Task (RMT) is a popular laboratory protocol for inducing rumination and distraction. Across published studies of dysphoric participants who undergo negative mood inductions when no other people are present, only once has the RMT induction failed in its purpose. The present experiment tested the robustness of the RMT under dyadic conditions (N = 135 pairs of same sex friends). When administered in the presence of another person, the RMT showed no differential effects on subsequent negative mood or state rumination. The negative mood induction successfully induced negative mood; the effect of the manipulation did not depend on depressive symptoms; and the state rumination measure was reliable and valid. In light of this pattern of effects, nonsignificant findings on manipulation checks and substantive hypothesis tests are attributed to failure of the RMT to produce rumination and distraction under these specific study conditions. The Discussion explores constraints on the generalizability of the RMT effect due to the presence of others, including the influence of dyadic emotion regulation, interpersonal distress avoidance, and secure attachment relationships.

Keywords: experiment, emotion regulation, mood regulation, coping, rumination, distraction, social, interpersonal, dyadic, friends

Column: Empirical research


Funding. This research was partially supported by a Graduate Student Research Award granted by the Institute for Scholarship in the Liberal Arts, College of Arts and Letters, the University of Notre Dame.

For Reference

  1. Butler E.A., Egloff B., Wilhelm F.H. et al. The social consequences of expressive suppression. Emotion, 2003. Vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 48–67. DOI: 10.1037/1528-3542.3.1.48
  2. Coan J.A., Schaefer H.S., Davidson R.J. Lending a hand: Social regulation of the neural response to threat. Psychological Science, 2006. Vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 1032–1039. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01832.x
  3. Cohen J. A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 1992. Vol. 1, no. 112, pp. 155–159. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
  4. DeVries A.C., Glasper E.R., Detillion C.E. Social modulation of stress responses. Physiology and Behavior, 2003. Vol. 3, no. 79, pp. 399–407. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00152-5
  5. Erber R., Wegner D.M., Therriault N. On being cool and collected. Mood regulation in anticipation of social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996. Vol. 4, no. 70, pp. 757–766. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.70.4.757.
  6. Fanelli D. “Positive” results increase down the hierarchy of the sciences. PLoS ONE, 2010. Vol. 4, no. 5, 10 p. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010068
  7. Hammen C.L. Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1991. Vol. 4, no. 100, pp. 555–561. DOI:10.1037/0021-843X. 100.4.555
  8. Joiner T.E. Depression’s vicious scree: Self-propagating and erosive processes in depression chronicity. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 2000. Vol. 2, no. 7,
    pp. 203–218. DOI: 10.1093/clipsy/7.2.203
  9. Joiner T.E., Alfano M.S., Metalsky G.I. When depression breeds contempt: Reassurance seeking, self-esteem, and rejection of depressed college students by their roommates. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1992. Vol. 1, no. 101, pp. 165–173. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.101.1.165
  10. Joormann J., Siemer M. Memory accessibility, mood regulation, and dysphoria: Difficulties in repairing sad mood with happy memories? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2004. Vol. 2, no. 113, pp. 179–188. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.2.179
  11. Liu R.T. Stress generation: Future directions and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 2013. Vol. 3, no. 33, pp. 406–416. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.005
  12. Lyubomirsky S., Tucker K.L., Caldwell N.D. et al. Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999. Vol. 5, no. 77, pp. 1041–1060. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514. 77.5.1041
  13. Lyubomirsky S., Caldwell N.D., Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1998. Vol. 1, no. 75, pp. 166–177. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.75.1.166
  14. Lyubomirsky S., Kasri F., Zehm K. Dysphoric rumination impairs concentration on academic tasks. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2003. Vol. 3, no. 27, pp. 309–330. DOI: 10.1023/A:1023918517378
  15. Lyubomirsky S., Nolen-Hoeksema S. Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993. Vol. 2, no. 65, pp. 339–349. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.339
  16. Lyubomirsky S., Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995. Vol. 1, no. 69, pp. 176–190. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.1.176
  17. McLaughlin K.A., Nolen-Hoeksema S. Interpersonal stress generation as
    a mechanism linking rumination to internalizing symptoms in early adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 2012. Vol. 5, no. 41, pp. 584–597. DOI:10.1080/15374416.2012.704840
  18. Mikulincer M., Shaver P.R., Pereg D. Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 2003. Vol. 2, no. 27, pp. 77–102. DOI: 10.1023/A:1024515519160
  19. Morrow J., Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990. Vol. 3, no. 58, pp. 519–527. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.3.519
  20. Moulds M.L., Kandris E., Williams A.D. The impact of rumination on memory for self-referent material. Memory, 2007. Vol. 8, no. 15, pp. 814–821. DOI: 10.1080/ 09658210701725831
  21. Munafò M.R., Nosek B.A., Bishop D.V.M. et al. A manifesto for reproducible science. Nature Human Behaviour, 2017. Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–9. DOI:10.1038/s41562-016-0021
  22. Naumann E., Tuschen-Caffier B., Voderholzer U. et al. Rumination but not distraction increases eating-related symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2015. Vol. 2, no. 124, pp. 412–420. DOI: 10.1037/abn0000046
  23. Nolen-Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1991. Vol. 4, no. 100, pp. 569–582. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569
  24. Nolen-Hoeksema S. Further evidence for the role of psychosocial factors in depression chronicity. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 2000. Vol. 2, no. 7,
    pp. 224–227. DOI: 10.1093/clipsy.7.2.224
  25. Nolen-Hoeksema S., Morrow J. Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cognition and Emotion, 1993. Vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 561–570. DOI: 10.1080/02699939308409206
  26. Nolen-Hoeksema S., Wisco B.E., Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2008. Vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 400–424. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x
  27. Radloff L.S. The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for use in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1977. Vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 385–400. DOI: 10.1177/014662167700100306
  28. Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965. 338 p.
  29. Swann W.B., Wenzlaff R.M., Krull D.S. et al. Allure of negative feedback: Self-verification strivings among depressed persons. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1992.
    Vol. 2, no. 101, pp. 293–306. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.101.2.293
  30. Vickers K.S., Vogeltanz-Holm N.D. The effects of rumination and distraction tasks on psychophysiological responses and mood in dysphoric and nondysphoric individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2003. Vol. 3, no. 27, pp. 331–348. DOI: 10.1023/ A:1023970501448
  31. Whitmer A.J., Gotlib I.H. Switching and backward inhibition in major depressive disorder: The role of rumination. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2012. Vol. 3, no. 121,
    pp. 570–578. DOI: 10.1037/a0027474
  32. Yoon K.L., Joormann J. Is timing everything? Sequential effects of rumination and distraction on interpersonal problem solving. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2012. Vol. 3, no. 36, pp. 165–172. DOI: 10.1007/s10608-010-9330-2
  33. Zetsche U., Ehring T., Ehlers A. The effects of rumination on mood and intrusive memories after exposure to traumatic material: An experimental study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 2009. Vol. 4, no. 40, pp. 499–514. DOI: 10.1016/ j.jbtep.2009.07.001.

© 2007–2022 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository     Webometrics Ranking of Repositories

RSS Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????