Web of Science СС
Previous issue (2021. Vol. 11, no. 4)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology
Former Title: Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Seria 16. Psychology. Education
Publisher: Saint Petersburg University
ISSN (printed version): 2658-3607
ISSN (online): 2658-6010
Published since 2011
4 issues per year
Free of fees
Open Access Journal
Memory for the Source of Solutions in Remote Associate Tasks: the Role of Generation Effect and the Aha!-Experience 44
The aim of the current work is to study the role of the Aha!-experience in remembering the source of solutions, either self-generated or externally presented. In memory studies there are specific source-monitoring errors, which occur whenever a participant claims to have generated an idea that was derived from different sources (unconscious plagiarism). Several previous studies have shown that experiencing the feeling of Aha! during either problem-solving or the presentation of the correct solutions can have a beneficial relationship to the subsequent recall of the material with the processing of which it was associated. However, studies of the Aha!-experience on the source monitoring task (self-generated solutions vs presented solu- tions) have not been conducted. In the authors’ study, the hypothesis that the feeling of Aha!, associated with the task being solved, can affect source-monitoring accuracy. During the first stage of the experiment, participants (80 people) had to solve Compound Remote Associates Task items and to estimate whether they had a feeling of Aha!, when either generating the solution or being presented with it in case they failed to generate it. At the second stage, conducted a week later, participants had to recall if the solution was generated by themselves or just presented. The results confirm the generation effect, which manifests itself in success- fully recalling problems for which a solution was found (sufficient generation) compared to problems with no-solutions found (fail-to-generate). Participants quite accurately recognized the source of the solution a week later, attributing generated solutions to themselves, while attributing fail-to-generate solutions to the presented ones. However, the authors did not find any additional impact of the Aha!-experience on the problem’s recognition, nor on the source- monitoring task performance. In the conclusion of the article, the contradictions of different experimental data concerning the influence of the Aha!-experience on long-term memory and further areas of research is discussed.
- Brown A. S., Murphy D. R. Cryptomnesia: Delineating inadvertent plagiarism.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 1989,
vol.15 (3), pp. 432–442. https://doi. org/10.1037/0278-7318.104.22.1682
- Marsh R. L., Bower G. H. Eliciting cryptomnesia: unconscious plagiarism in
a puzzle task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition, 1993, vol. 19 (3), pp. 673–688. https://doi.
- Gingerich A. C., Sullivan M. C. Claiming hidden memories as one’s own: A
review of inadvertent plagiarism. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2013, vol.
25 (8), pp. 903–916. https://doi.org/10.1080/204459 11.2013.841674
- Johnson M. K., Hashtroudi S., Lindsay D. S. Source monitoring.
Psychological Bulletin, 1993, vol. 114 (1), pp. 3–28.
- Johnson M. K., Raye C. L. Reality monitoring. Psychological Review, 1981,
vol. 88 (1), pp. 67–85. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X. 88.1.67
- Slamecka N. J., Graf P. The generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1978, vol. 4
(6), pp. 592–604. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278- 7322.214.171.1242
- Bertsch S., Pesta B., Wiscott R., McDaniel M. The generation effect: A
meta-analytic review. Mem- ory & Cognition, 2007, vol. 35, pp. 201–210.
- Marsh E. J., Edelman G., Bower G. H. Demonstrations of a generation effect
in context memory. Memory & Cognition, 2001, vol. 29 (6), pp. 798–805.
- Geghman K. D., Multhaup K. S. How generation affects source memory. Memory
& Cognition, 2004, vol. 32 (5), pp. 819–823.
- Kinjo H., Snodgrass J. G. Does the generation effect occur for pictures?
The American Journal of Psychology, 2000, vol. 113 (1), pp. 95–121.
- Voss J. F., Vesonder G. T., Post T. A., Ney L. G. Was the item recalled and
if so by whom? Journal of Memory and Language, 1987, vol. 26 (4), pp. 466–479.
- Jurica P. J., Shimamura A. P. Monitoring item and source information:
Evidence for a negative generation effect in source memory. Memory &
Cognition, 1999, vol. 27 (4), pp. 648–656. https://doi.
- Rabinowitz J. C. Effects of repetition of mental operations on memory for
occurrence and origin.Memory & Cognition, 1990, vol. 18 (1), pp. 72–82.
- Mulligan N. W., Lozito J. P., Rosner Z. A. Generation and context memory.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2006, vol.
32 (4), pp. 836–846. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278- 73126.96.36.1996
- Gershkovich V. A., Morozov M. I. Positive and negative influence of
generation effect on memorizing the whole and fragmented sayings. Vestnik of
Saint Petersburg University. Psikhologiia. Sotsiologiia. Pedagogika, 2015, vol.
3, pp. 5–17. (in Russian)
- Riefer D. M., Chien Yu., Reimer J. F. Positive and negative generation
effects in source monitoring. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,
2007, vol. 60 (10), pp. 1389–1405. https://doi.
- Stark L.-J., Perfect T. J. Elaboration inflation: How your ideas become
mine. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 2006, vol. 20 (5), pp. 641–648.
- Gick M. L., Lockhart R. S. Cognitive and affective components of insight.
The Nature of Insight, eds R. R. Sternberg, J. E. Davidson. The MIT Press,
1995, pp. 197–228.
- Webb M. E., Little D. R., Cropper S. J. Insight is not in the problem:
Investigating insight in problem solving across task types. Frontiers in
Psychology, 2016, vol. 7, article 1424. https://doi.org/10.3389/
- Kizilirmak J. M., Galvao Gomes da Silva J., Imamoglu F., Richardson-Klavehn
A. Generation and the subjective feeling of “aha!” are independently related to
learning from insight. Psychological Research, 2016, vol. 80 (6), pp.
- Ishikawa T., Toshima M., Mogi K. How and When? Metacognition and Solution
Timing Characterize an “Aha” Experience of Object Recognition in Hidden
Figures. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019, vol. 10, article 1023.
- Klein G., Jarosz A. A naturalistic study of insight. Journal of Cognitive
Engineering and Decision Making, 2011, vol. 5 (4), pp. 335–351.
- Kizilirmak J. M., Wiegmann B., Richardson-Klavehn A. Problem solving as an
encoding task: A special case of the generation effect. Journal of Problem
Solving, 2016, vol. 9, pp. 59–76. https://doi. org/10.7771/1932-6246.1182
- Kizilirmak J. M, Serger V., Kehl J., Öllinger M., Folta-Schoofs K.,
Richardson-Klavehn A. Feelings- of-Warmth Increase More Abruptly for Verbal
Riddles Solved with in Contrast to Without Aha! Experience. Frontiers in
Psychology, 2018, vol. 9, article 1404.
- Rothmaler K., Nigbur R., Ivanova G. New insights into insight:
Neurophysiological correlates of the difference between the intrinsic “aha” and
the extrinsic “oh yes” moment. Neuropsychologia, 2017, vol. 95, pp. 204–214.
- Moroshkina N. V., Ammalainen A. V., Savina A. I. Catching up with insight:
modern approaches and methods of measuring insight in cognitive psychology.
Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniia, 2020, vol. 13 (74), p. 5. Available at:
10.01.2021). (In Russian)
- Auble P. M., Franks J. J., Soraci S. A. Effort toward comprehension:
Elaboration or “aha”? Memory & Cognition, 1979, vol. 7, pp. 426–434.
- Wills T. W., Soraci S. A., Chechile R. A., Taylor H. A. “Aha” effects in
the generation of pictures. Memory & Cognition, 2000, vol. 28 (6), pp.
- Danek A. H., Fraps T., von Müller A., Grothe B., Ollinger M. Aha!
experiences leave a mark: Facilitated recall of insight solutions.
Psychological Research, 2013, vol. 77 (5), pp. 659–669. https://doi.
- Mednick S. The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological
Review, 1962, vol. 69 (3), pp. 220–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0048850
- Bowden E. M., Jung-Beeman M. Normative data for 144 compound remote
associate problems. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,
2003, vol. 35, pp. 634–639. https://doi.org/10.3758/ BF03195543
- Moroshkina N. V., Ammalainen A. V., Gershkovich V. A., Lvova O. V.,
Fedosova V. I. Development of a Russian version of the Remote Associates Tasks
(RAT-Rus) for insight research. Pervyi natsional’nyi kongress po kognitivnym
issledovaniiam, iskusstvennomu intellektu i neiroinformatike (IIKN-2020).
Materialy konferentsii. Мoscow, 2020. (In press) (In Russian)
- Bowden E. M., Jung-Beeman M., Fleck J., Kounios J. New approaches to
demystifying insight. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2005, vol. 9 (7), pp.
- Peirce J. W., Gray J. R., Simpson S., MacAskill M. R., Höchenberger R.,
Sogo H., Kastman E., Lindeløv J. PsychoPy: experiments in behavior made easy.
Behavior Research Methods, 2019, vol. 51 (1), pp. 195–203.
- Chetverikov A. Linear Mixed Effects Regression in Cognitive Studies.
Rossiiskii zhurnal kognitivnoi nauki, 2015, vol. 2 (1), pp. 41–51. (In Russian,
abstract — in English)
- Bates D., Maechler M., Bolker B., Walker S. Rehcbdjv: Linear mixed-effects
models using Eigen and S4 (Rpackage version 1.0-5). 2014. Available at:
http://cran.rproject.org/package=Ime4 (accessed 25.01.2021).
- Slamecka N. J., Fevreiski J. The generation effect when generation fails.
Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 1983, vol. 22 (2), pp.
- Buyer L., Dominowski R. Retention of Solutions: It Is Better to Give than
to Receive. The American Journal of Psychology, 1989, vol. 102 (3), pp.
- Dominowski R., Buyer L. Retention of Problem Solutions: The Re-Solution
Effect. The American Journal of Psychology, 2000, vol. 113(2), pp. 249–274.
- Rosenzweig S., Mason G. An experimental study of memory in relation to the
theory of repression. British Journal of Psychology, 1934, vol. 24, pp.