Russian Psychological Issues
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice For AuthorsAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2020. Vol. 13, no. 1)

Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)


Experimental Psychology (Russia)

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2072-7593

ISSN (online): 2311-7036


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 2008

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


Actualization of semantic content of the expression depending on negative particles and verbal instructions “to remember” or “to forget” 807

Malanov S.V.
Doctor of Psychology, Associate Professor, Chair of Psychology in Education, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia

The regularities of actualization of the semantic content of utterances (sentences) are studied depending on the inclusion in their composition of: a) verbal instructions to “remember” or “forget”; b) negative particles. The obtained results show that the effectiveness of actualization and subsequent reproduction by the subject of the semantic content of utterances proves to be high enough with the use of the preliminary speech instructions “You will remember” and decrease when using the instructions “You will forget”. Moreover, the inclusion of negative particles in such instructions significantly reduces the effectiveness of reproducing the semantic content of utterances.

Keywords: semantic content, language means, speech actions, mental operations and actions, meanings, verbal instructions for memorizing and forgetting, negative particles

Column: Psycholinguistics


For Reference

  1. Baddeley A.D., Eysenck M.W., Anderson M.C. Memory. Hove, England: Psychology Press. 2009.
  2. Basden B.H., Basden D.R. Directed forgetting Further comparisons of the item and list methods. Memory, 1996, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 633–653.
  3. Clark H.H., Chase W.G. On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 1972, vol. 3, pp. 472–517.
  4. Dale R., Duran N.D. The Cognitive Dynamics of Negated Sentence Verification. Cognitive Science, 2011, pp. 1–14. Available at: (Accessed 08.04.2017).
  5. Gal’perin P.Ya. Lektsii po psikhologii [Lectures in Psychology]. Moscow, Knizhnyi dom «Universitet»: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2002. 400 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Gal’perin P.Ya. Psikhologiya kak ob”ektivnaya nauka [Psychology as an objective science]. Moscow, Moskovskii psikhologo-sotsial’nyi institut Publ., Voronezh, NPO «MODEK» Publ., 1998. 480 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Il’yasov I.I. Struktura protsessa ucheniya [ The structure of educational process]. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo universiteta Publ., 1986. 200 p. (In Russ.).
  8. Khalpern D. Psikhologiya kriticheskogo myshleniya [Psychology of critical thinking]. Saint Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2000. 512 p.
  9. Kobozeva I.M. Lingvisticheskaya semantika [language semantics]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2004. 352 p. (In Russ.).
  10. Krongauz M.A. Semantika [Semantics]. Moscow, Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi gumanitarnyi universitet Publ., 2001. 399 p. (In Russ.).
  11. Larkina E.N. Osobennosti organizatsii umstvennykh deistvii v zavisimosti ot grammaticheskoi struktury rechevykh vyskazyvanii [Features of the organization of mental actions]. Studencheskaya nauka i XXI vek [Student Science and the 21st Century], 2010, no. 7, pp. 309–314.
  12. Leont’ev A.A. Psikholingvisticheskie edinitsy i porozhdenie rechevogo vyskazyvaniya [Psycholinguistic units and the generation of speech utterances]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2003. 312 p. (In Russ.).
  13. Luriya A.R. Yazyk i soznanie [Language and consciousness]. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo universiteta Publ., 1979. 320 p. (In Russ.).
  14. MacLeod C. M. Directed forgetting. In J.M. Golding & C.M. MacLeod (Eds.), Intentional Forgetting; Interdisciplinary Approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrense Erlbaum Associates, 1998. Pp. 197–218.
  15. Malanov S.V. Influence of negative particles in the syntactic structure of conditional statements on the effectiveness of the actualization of the semantic content [Influence of negative particles in the syntactic structure of conditional statements on the effectiveness of the actualization of the semantic content]. Eksperimental’naya psikhologiya [Experimental Psychology (Russia)], 2014, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 71–81. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
  16. Malanov S.V. Sistemno-deyatel’nostnyi kul’turno-istoricheskii podkhod k analizu i ob”yasneniyu psikhicheskikh yavlenii: ob”yasnitel’nye printsipy i teoreticheskie polozheniya. [System-activity cultural-historical approach to the analysis and explanation of mental phenomena: explanatory principles and theoretical positions]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo psikhologo-sotsial’nogo instituta Publ; Voronezh: Izdatel’stvo NPO «MODEK» Publ, 2010. 496 p. (In Russ.).
  17. Mayo R., Schul Y., Rosenthal M. If You Negate, You May Forget: Negated Repetitions Impair Memory Compared With Affirmative Repetitions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2014, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 1541–1552. doi: 10.1037/a0036122
  18. Okol’nikov A.M. Zavisimost’ effektivnosti aktualizatsii semanticheskogo soderzhaniya ot sintaksicheskoi organizatsii rechevykh vyskazyvanii [Dependence of the effectiveness of the actualization of semantic content on the syntactic organization of speech utterances]. Bakalavr [Bachelor], 2015, no. 5–6, pp. 19–21.
  19. Shcherbakov V.N. Vliyanie sintaksicheskoi organizatsii rechevykh ukazanii na uspeshnost’ umstvennogo resheniya zadach s uslovnymi suzhdeniyami [Influence of the syntactic organization of verbal indications on the success of the mental solution of problems with conditional propositions]. Studencheskaya nauka i XXI vek [Student Science and the 21st Century], 2015, pp. 123–126.
  20. Sokolov A.N. Vnutrennyaya rech’ i myshlenie [Inner speech and thinking]. Moscow, Prosveshchenie Publ., 1967.
  21. Uikens K. Pererabotka informatsii, prinyatie resheniya i poznavatel’nye protsessy [Information processing, decision making and cognitive processes]. Chelovecheskii faktor. V 6 tomakh. T.1. Ergonomika kompleksnaya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya distsiplina [Human factor: 6 t. T. 1. Ergonomics is a complex scientific and technical discipline]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1991, pp. 206–267.
  22. Xiang M., Grove J., Giannakidou A. Semantic and pragmatic processes in the comprehension of negation: An event related potential study of negative polarity sensitivity. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 2016, no. 38, pp. 71–88. Available at: (Accessed 08.04.2017).

© 2007–2020 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????