Courage to Be. Hardiness and Faith



The article presents a comparison between hardiness (the psychological construct by S. Maddi and D.A. Leontiev), the term "courage to be" and the defined conception of faith (by P. Tillich). It is shown, that Hardiness (by S. Maddi), despite author's opinion, appears to be not an operationalization of Tillich's "courage to be", but is a development of one of its aspects. Differences between the interpretation of the term in English and Russian variants of its operationalization are also discussed.

General Information

Keywords: challenge, hardiness, courage to be, existential anxiety

Journal rubric: Psychology of Faith, Christian Psychology and Psychotherapy

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Krichevec A.N., Solodushkina M.V. Courage to Be. Hardiness and Faith. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2014. Vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 103–117. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2014220505. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Anatoly N. Krichevec, Doctor of Philosophy, PhD in Physics and Matematics, Professor, Department of Methodology of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Moscow State University. M. V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Marina V. Solodushkina, Teacher of the Department of General and Applied Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Orthodox Institute Of St. John The Theologian Of The Russian Orthodox University, e-mail:



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