Validating Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity and Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scales in the Russian Sample

1152

Abstract

We present the results of validating Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale (Lundgren et al., 2004) and Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity Scale (Park, 2007) on the Russian sample. These scales operationalize factors of interpersonal vulnerability to body dissatisfaction as a result of internalizing the notions of the ideal body transmitted by parents, peers and mass media. The sample included 760 respondents aged 16—48, 687 female (Mage=24, Med=22, SD=6.75) and 73 male (Mage=23.2, Med=22, SD=5.58). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that either scale had a single latent factor, both showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α for FNAE — α=0.91; ARS — α=0.93) and test-retest reliability (for FNAE — rs=0.89; for ARS —0.93; p<0,001). FNAE showed age differences, reaching the highest scores in the youngest group (aged 16—20). Convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was confirmed; they were positively related to attachment-related anxiety and disturbances in body image and eating behavior, and correlated negatively with self-esteem. Both scales had a positive impact on body image disturbances and drive for thinness. Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale and Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity Scale can be used in studies broadly related to body dissatisfaction.

General Information

Keywords: validation, fear of negative appearance evaluation, appearance-based rejection sensitivity, physical attractiveness, body dissatisfaction, social anxiety, rejection sensitivity

Journal rubric: Testing and Validating Instruments

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp.2020280407

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 20-013-00429.

Acknowledgements. We express gratitude to Ksenia Matveeva and Maria Konovalova for their participation in the pilot study and to Daria Jakubovskaya for her aid in data collection.

For citation: Razvaliaeva A.Y., Polskaya N.A. Validating Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity and Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scales in the Russian Sample. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2020. Vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 118–143. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2020280407. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Bodalev A.A., Stolin V.V. Obshchaya psikhodiagnostika [General psychodiagnostics]. Saint Petersburg: Rech’, 2000. 438 p.
  2. Garanyan N.G., Kholmogorova A.B., Yudeeva T.Yu. Faktornaya struktura i psikhometricheskie pokazateli oprosnika perfektsionizma: razrabotka trekhfaktornoi versii [Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of Perfectionism Inventory: Developing 3-Factor Version]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2018. Vol. 26 (3), pp. 8—32. DOI:10.17759/ cpp.2018260302. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
  3. Il’chik O.A., Sivukha S.V., Skugarevskii O.A., et al. Russkoyazychnaya adaptatsiya metodiki “Shkala otsenki pishchevogo povedeniya” [Validation of the Eating Disorder Inventory on the Russian sample]. Psikhiatriya, psikhoterapiya i klinicheskaya psikhologiya = Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Clinical Psychology, 2011, no. 1, pp. 39—50.
  4. Labunskaya V.A. Otnoshenie k vneshnemu obliku, ego tsennost’ i znachimost’ kak faktory sub”ektivnogo blagopoluchiya molodykh lyudei [Attitude to appearance, its value and significance as factors of subjective well-being of young people]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2019. Vol. 10 (3), pp. 51—66. DOI:10.17759/sps.2019100304. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
  5. Pol’skaya N.A. Chuvstvitel’nost’ k otverzheniyu iz-za vneshnosti u uchastnits onlain-soobshchestv po pokhudeniyu [Appearance-based rejection sensitivity in participants of online weight-loss communities]. Bekhterev i sovremennaya psikhologiya lichnosti: sbornik statei VI Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. (g. Kazan’, 2—4 oktyabrya 2020 g.). [Bekhterev and modern personality psychology: Proceedings of the VI All-Russian scientific and practical conference]. Kazan’: NOU DPO Tsentr sotsial’no-gumanitarnogo obrazovaniya, 2020, pp. 89—92.
  6. Sabel’nikova N.V., Kashirskii D.V. Oprosnik privyazannosti k blizkim lyudyam [Attachment to close people questionnaire]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2015. Vol. 36 (4), pp. 84—97.
  7. Skugarevskii O.A., Sivukha S.V. Obraz sobstvennogo tela: razrabotka instrumenta dlya otsenki [Developing a scale to assess body image]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2006, no. 2, pp. 40—48.
  8. Tarkhanova P.M., Kholmogorova A.B. Sotsial’nye i psikhologicheskie faktory fizicheskogo perfektsionizma i neudovletvorennosti svoim telom [Social and Psychological Factors of Physical Perfectionism and Body Dissatisfaction]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2011. Vol. 16 (5), pp. 52—60. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
  9. Kholmogorova A.B., Tarkhanova P.M. Standarty vneshnosti i kul’tura: rol’ fizicheskogo perfektsionizma i ego posledstviya dlya zdorov’ya podrostkov i molodezhi [Standards of appearance and culture: The role of physical perfectionism and its consequences for the health of adolescents and young people]. Voprosy psikhologii, 2014, no. 2, pp. 52—65.
  10. Yakubovskaya D.K., Pol’skaya N.A. Ideal «khudogo tela» i samoob”ektivatsiya v sotsial’nykh media [Thinness ideal and self-objectivation in the social media]. VII Vserossiiskaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya po psikhologii razvitiya (chteniya pamyati L.F. Obukhovoi) “Vozmozhnosti i riski tsifrovoi sredy”. Sbornik materialov konferentsii (tezisov). T. 2. (g. Moskva, 12—13 dekabrya 2019 g.). [VII All-Russian scientific and practical conference in developmental psychology (in the memory of Lyudmila F. Obukhova) “Opportunities and risks in the digital world”. Conference proceedings. Vol. 2.]. Moscow: FGBOU VO MGPPU, 2019, pp. 368—371.
  11. Almenara C.A., Aimé A., Maïano C., et al. Weight stigmatization and disordered eating in obese women: The mediating effects of self-esteem and fear of negative appearance evaluation. European Review of Applied Psychology, 2017. Vol. 67 (3), pp. 155—162. DOI:10.1016/j.erap.2017.02.004
  12. Bartholomew K., Horowitz L.M. Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991. Vol. 61 (2), pp. 226—244. DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.226
  13. Blöte A.W., Miers A.C., Westenberg P.M. The role of social performance and physical attractiveness in peer rejection of socially anxious adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2014. Vol. 25 (1), pp. 189—200. DOI:10.1111/jora.12107
  14. Boersma K.E., Jarry J.L. The paradoxical moderating effect of body image investment on the impact of weight-based derogatory media. Body Image, 2013. Vol. 10 (2), pp. 200—209. DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.11.002
  15. Bowker J.C., Thomas K.K., Spencer S.V., et al. Examining appearance-based rejection sensitivity during early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2013. Vol. 23 (2), pp. 375—388. DOI:10.1111/jora.12003
  16. Calogero R.M., Park L.E., Rahemtulla Z.K., et al. Predicting excessive body image concerns among British university students: The unique role of appearance-based rejection sensitivity. Body Image, 2010. Vol. 7 (1), pp. 78—81. DOI:10.1016/j. bodyim.2009.09.005
  17. Densham K., Webb H.J., Zimmer-Gembeck M.J., et al. Early adolescents’ body dysmorphic symptoms as compensatory responses to parental appearance messages and appearance-based rejection sensitivity. Body Image, 2017. Vol. 23, pp. 162—170. DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.09.005
  18. DeWall C.N., Masten C.L., Powell C., et al. Do neural responses to rejection depend on attachment style? An fMRI study. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2012. Vol. 7 (2), pp. 184—192. DOI:10.1093/scan/nsq107
  19. Dunaev J.L., Schulz J.L., Markey C.N. Cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women: Appearance esteem, weight esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation. Journal of Health Psychology, 2018. Vol. 23 (1), pp. 59—66. DOI:10.1177/1359105316642249
  20. Feldman S., Downey G. Rejection sensitivity as a mediator of the impact of childhood exposure to family violence on adult attachment behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 1994. Vol. 6 (1), pp. 231—247.
  21. Khoshkam S., Bahrami F., Ahmadi S.A., et al. Attachment style and rejection sensitivity: The mediating effect of self-esteem and worry among Iranian college students. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 2012. Vol. 8 (3), pp. 363—374. DOI:10.5964/ ejop.v8i3.463
  22. Langlois J.H., Ritter J.M., Casey R.J., et al. Infant attractiveness predicts maternal behaviors and attitudes. Developmental Psychology, 1995. Vol. 31 (3), pp. 464—472. DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.31.3.464
  23. Levinson C.A., Rodebaugh T.L., White E.K., et al. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation. Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders? Appetite, 2013. Vol. 67, pp. 125—133. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.04.002
  24. Lundgren J.D., Anderson D.A., Thompson J.K. Fear of negative appearance evaluation: Development and evaluation of a new construct for risk factor work in the field of eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 2004. Vol. 5 (1), pp. 75—84. DOI:10.1016/S1471-0153(03)00055-2
  25. Maïano C., Morin A.J., Monthuy-Blanc J., et al. Construct validity of the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale in a community sample of French adolescents. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 2010. Vol. 26, pp. 19—27. DOI:10.1027/1015-5759/a000004
  26. Park L.E. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity: Implications for mental and physical health, affect, and motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2007. Vol. 33 (4), pp. 490—504. DOI:10.1177/0146167206296301
  27. Park L.E., Calogero R.M., Harwin M.J., et al. Predicting interest in cosmetic surgery: Interactive effects of appearance-based rejection sensitivity and negative appearance comments. Body Image, 2009. Vol. 6 (3), pp. 186—193. DOI:10.1016/j. bodyim.2009.02.003
  28. Park L.E., Calogero R.M., Young A.F., et al. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity predicts body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and cosmetic surgery acceptance. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2010. Vol. 29 (5), pp. 489—509. DOI:10.1521/jscp.2010.29.5.489
  29. Park L.E., DiRaddo A.M., Calogero R.M. Sociocultural influence and appearance-based rejection sensitivity among college students. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2009. Vol. 33 (1), pp. 108—119. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01478.x
  30. Polskaya N.A., Razvaliaeva A.Yu. Non-suicidal self-injuries, emotion regulation and body dissatisfaction in youth. ISSS Annual Conference 2020. Poster and Oral Presentation Abstract Book (Vienna, 26—27 June, 2020). Vienna, 2020, p. 46.
  31. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 2017. Available at: https:// www.R-project.org/ (Accessed 05.05.2017).
  32. Sharif S.P., Ahadzadeh A.S., Ong F.S., et al. Fear of negative appearance evaluation and attitude towards mammography: Moderating role of internal health locus of control, cancer worry and age. Health Promotion, 2020. Vol. 10 (3), pp. 220—229. DOI:10.34172/hpp.2020.35

Information About the Authors

Anna Y. Razvaliaeva, PhD in Psychology, Researcher, Laboratory of Cognitive Processes and Mathematical Psychology, Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2046-3411, e-mail: annraz@rambler.ru

Natalia A. Polskaya, Doctor of Psychology, Associate Professor, Professor of the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Department, Faculty of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Leading Researcher, Scientific and Practical Center for Mental Health of Children and Adolescents named after G.E. Sukhareva of the Moscow Department of Public Health, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7305-5577, e-mail: polskayana@yandex.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 1712
Previous month: 51
Current month: 9

Downloads

Total: 1152
Previous month: 45
Current month: 7