Validation of the Russianversion of the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) in Population and Clinical Samples



Relevance. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the third most common psychiatric disorder, potentially disabling with significant social and economic consequences. In Russia, little attention is paid to the study of OCD, which leads to the problem of differential diagnosis and effective treatment of OCD. One of the reasons for the insufficient attention to OCD is the lack of validated Russian questionnaires for diagnosing OCD. The purpose of this work is the initial validation of a translated version of the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Characteristics of the surveyed groups. A population-based sample of 300 students (212 women and 88 men) and a clinical sample of 13 patients with anxiety and depressive disorders (8 women and 5 men) and 13 patients with OCD (11 women and 2 men) participated in the study. Severity of OCD symptoms were assessed with the translated version of Maudsley questionnaire. Results. According to our data, the MOCI questionnaire allows to differentiate reliably (p = 0,027) patients with OCD from patients with anxiety-depressive disorders and can be suitable as a primary diagnostic test for identifying OCD patients (p < 0,05) and the risk group. The reliability and convergent validity of the questionnaire were shown.

General Information

Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Inventory (MOCI) scale

Journal rubric: Testing and Validating Instruments

Article type: scientific article


Received: 24.03.2022


For citation: Karpov D.S., Karpova M.S., Popova S.P., Kholmogorova A.B. Validation of the Russianversion of the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) in Population and Clinical Samples. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2022. Vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 21–41. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2022300303. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Praszko, J., Mozny, P., Schlepecki, M., and the colleagues. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Mental Disorders. Moscow: Institute for General Humanitarian Studies, 2015. 1072 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Tarabrina N.V. Practicum on psychology of the post-traumatic stress. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2001. 272 p. (In Russ.)
  3. Benatti B., Albert U., Maina G., Fiorillo A., Celebre L., Girone N., Fineberg N., Bramante S., Rigardetto S., Dell’Osso B. What happened to patients with obsessive compulsive disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic? A multicentre report from tertiary clinics in Northern Italy // Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020. Vol. 11. P. 720. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00720
  4. Canals J., Hernandez-Martinez C., Cosi S., Voltas N. The epidemiology of obsessive--compulsive disorder in Spanish school children // J. Anxiety Disord. 2012. Vol. 26 (7). P. 746—752. DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2012.06.003
  5. Citkowska-Kisielewska A., Rutkowski K., Mielimąka M., Sobański J.A., Dembińska E. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder and in generalized anxiety disorder: occurrence and correlations // J. Psychiatr. Pract. 2020. Vol. 26 (2). P. 101—119. DOI: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000451
  6. Cronbach L.J. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests // Psychometrika. 1951. Vol. 16 (3). P. 297—334. DOI:10.1007/BF02310555
  7. Freeman J.B., Dale R. Assessing bimodality to detect the presence of a dual cognitive process // Behav. Res. Methods. 2013. Vol. 45 (1). P. 83—97. DOI:10.3758/s13428-012-0225-x
  8. Goodman W.K., Grice D.E., Lapidus K.A.B., Coffey B.J. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder // Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2014. Vol. 37 (3). P. 257—267. DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2014.06.004
  9. Goodman W.K., Price L.H., Rasmussen S.A., Mazure C., Fleischmann R.L., Hill C.L., Heninger G.R., Charney D.S. The Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale. I. Development, use, and reliability // Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 1989. Vol. 46 (11). P. 1006—1011. DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810110048007
  10. Grabe H.J., Meyer C., Hapke U., Rumpf H.J., Freyberger H.J., Dilling H., John U. Prevalence, quality of life and psychosocial function in obsessive-compulsive disorder and subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in northern Germany // Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2000. Vol. 250 (5). P. 262—268. DOI:10.1007/s004060070017
  11. Hagen K., Solem S., Opstad H.B., Hansen B., Hagen R. The role of metacognition and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in psychosis: an analogue study // BMC Psychiatry. 2017. Vol. 17(1). P. 233. DOI:10.1186/s12888-017-1392-1
  12. Harrison J.E., Weber S., Jakob R., Chute C.G. ICD-11: an international classification of diseases for the twenty-first century // BMC Med. Inform. Decis. Mak. 2021. Vol. 21. P. 206. DOI:10.1186/s12911-021-01534-6
  13. Hartigan J.A., Hartigan P.M. The Dip Test of Unimodality // The Annals of Statistics. 1985. Vol. 13 (1). P. 70—84.
  14. Hodgson R.J., Rachman S. Obsessional-compulsive complaints // Behaviour research and therapy. 1977. Vol. 15 (5). P. 389-395. DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(77)90042-0
  15. Ishikawa R., Kobori O., Shimizu E. Development and validation of the Japanese version of the obsessive-compulsive inventory // BMC Res. Notes. 2014. Vol. 7. P. 306. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-306
  16. Jeong J., Lee Y., Cho C.-H., Lee H.-J. Circadian Gene Variations Are Associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors in a Young Healthy Korean Population // Chronobiol. Med. 2019. Vol. 1 (3). P. 115—120. DOI:10.33069/cim.2019.0020
  17. Johansen T., Dittrich W.H. Cognitive performance in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample 1: cognitive functions // Psychiatry J. 2013. Vol. 2013. P. 565191. DOI:10.1155/2013/565191
  18. Kim M.S., Jang K.M., Kim B.N. The neuropsychological profile of a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample // J. Int. Neuropsychol Soc. 2009. Vol. 15 (2). P. 286—290. DOI:10.1017/S1355617709090213
  19. Knapp T.R. Bimodality revisited. // J. Mod. Appl. Stat. Methods. 2007. Vol. 6 (1). P. 8—20. DOI: 10.22237/jmasm/1177992120
  20. Krebs G., Heyman I. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents // Arch. Dis. Child. 2015. Vol. 100 (5). P. 495—499. DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306934
  21. Kuckertz J.M., Rhee D.W., Schreck M., Van Kirk N., Dattolico D., Falkenstein M.J. Reevaluating the psychometric properties of symptom measures within longitudinal contexts: The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale // Psychological Assessment. 2021. Vol. 33 (8). P. 756—765. DOI:10.1037/pas0001017
  22. Lee K.F.A., Fox A.M., Notebaert L. The effects of anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive subclinical symptoms on performance monitoring // Int. J. Psychophysiol. 2020. Vol. 158. P. 362—369. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.09.009
  23. Li C.S., Chen S.H. Obsessive-compulsiveness and impulsivity in a non-clinical population of adolescent males and females // Psychiatry Res. 2007. Vol. 149 (1—3). P. 129—138. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2006.05.001
  24. MacMaster F.P., Rosenberg D.R. Editorial: Neurobiological substrates of subclinical obsessive-compulsive disorder in children // J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry. 2021. Vol. 60 (6). P. 688—689. DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2020.12.014
  25. Mataix-Cols D., Junque C., Sanchez-Turet M., Vallejo J., Verger K., Barrios M. Neuropsychological functioning in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample // Biol. Psychiatry. 1999. Vol. 45 (7). P. 898—904. DOI:10.1016/s0006-3223(98)00260-1
  26. Mattina G.F., Slyepchenko A., Steiner M., Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders // Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 2020. Vol. 175. P. 369—386. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64123-6.00025-4
  27. Palermo S., Marazziti D., Baroni S., Barberi F.M., Mucci F. The relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder and psychosis: an unresolved issue // Clin. Neuropsychiatry. 2020. Vol. 17(3). P. 149—157. DOI:10.36131/cnfioritieditore20200302
  28. Park S.C., Kim Y.K. Anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: changes, controversies, and future directions // Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2020. Vol. 1191. P. 187—196. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-32-9705-0_12
  29. Pfister R., Schwarz K., Janczyk M., Dale R., Freeman J. Good things peak in pairs: a note on the bimodality coefficient // Frontiers in Psychology. 2013. Vol. 4. P. 700. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00700
  30. SAS/STAT user’s guide. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc., 2022.
  31. Schmitt N. Uses and abuses of coefficient alpha // Psychological Assessment. 1996. Vol. 8 (4). P. 350—353. DOI:10.1037/1040-3590.8.4.350
  32. Shafran R., Coughtrey A., Whittal M. Recognising and addressing the impact of COVID-19 on obsessive-compulsive disorder // Lancet Psychiatry. 2020. Vol. 7 (7). P. 570—572. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30222-4
  33. Sternberger L.G., Burns G.L. Maudsley obsessional-compulsive inventory: obsessions and compulsions in a nonclinical sample // Behaviour research and therapy. 1990. Vol. 28 (4). P. 337—340. DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(90)90086-x
  34. Tadai T., Nakamura M., Okazaki S., Nakajima T. The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Japan: a study of students using the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory and DSM-III-R // Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 1995. Vol. 49 (1). P. 39—41. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1819.1995.tb01854.x
  35. World Health O. ICD-10: international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems: tenth revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.


Information About the Authors

Dmitry S. Karpov, PhD in Biology, no, Senior researcher, Laboratory of intracellular proteolysis regulation, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Senior researcher,, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Maria S. Karpova, PhD in Biology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Svetlana P. Popova, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Alla B. Kholmogorova, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Leading Researcher, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry (A Branch of the National Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology), Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 602
Previous month: 81
Current month: 10


Total: 248
Previous month: 17
Current month: 3