Virtual reality and education



The theoretical and methodological problems raised in the paradigm of virtual educational ontology are discussed. The approaches and models of virtual education and their relationship with the forms of education, proposed by foreign researchers, are presented. The philosophical and ontological substantiation of the provisions of virtual education is given, the types and levels of virtual reality presented by national researchers are highlighted. A review of empirical results revealed the elaboration of the immersive properties of virtual reality and showed that the severity of the sense of presence depends on the effectiveness of cognitive control functions, the quality of virtual reality and the level of immersion. The virtual training programs developed by national researchers, according to the test results, showed an improvement in the answers of poorly performing students by 40-50%, and among excellent students and gifted ones by 100%. The results obtained strongly indicate the positive impact of virtual education on academic performance.

General Information

Keywords: educational virtual reality, simulated spaces, immersive properties, ontology of virtual education, constructivist and situational learning

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology and Pedagogical Psychology

Article type: review article


Funding. The study was carried out within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation No. 730000F.99.1.BV09AA00006 “The influence of high-level virtual reality technologies on mental development in adolescence”.

Acknowledgements. The author is grateful for help in organizing the research of the scientific leader of the project V.V. Selivanov.

For citation: Khoze E.G. Virtual reality and education [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 68–78. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2021000002. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Evgeny G. Khoze, PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Institute of Experimental Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Head of the Laboratory of Experimental and Practical Psychology,Associate Professor, Department of General Psychology,Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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