Emotions, Personality Traits and Metacognitions as Predictors of Students’ Psychological Well-Being in Contemporary Situation



This study aims to comprehensively explore the emotional, personal, and metacognitive predictors of students’ psychological well-being. The article presents the results of identifiesying supporting and dysfunctional factors that affect the level of psychological well-being of the current generation of students. Study sample: 317 people subjects aged 18 to 45 years (average age 20.82) — undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students. To measure these characteristics, the following methods were used: a short portrait questionnaire of the Big Five; methodology “Differential Scale of Emotions”; methodology for diagnosing the subjective well-being of the individual; Metacognitive Awareness Inventory; Metacognitive behavior self-assessment scale; test “Differential type of reflection”; Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the author’s self-assessment questionnaire of metacognitive behavior “Metacognitive skills in the structure of educational and professional activities”. It is shown that the level of subjective well-being differs significantly depending on the level of metacognitive involvement. A positive effect is also exerted by a high index of positive emotions, a greater level of extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low level of neuroticism. The data obtained can be helpful in developing programs for forming and reforming individual metacognitive strategies that contribute to successful adaptation and maintaining subjective well-being maintenance.

General Information

Keywords: psychological well-being, subjective well-being, metacognitive skills, emotions, personality traits

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/pse.2022270507

Funding. The research has been funded by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF), project № 21-78-00116, at the Don State Technical University

Received: 10.05.2022


For citation: Denisova E.G., Ermakov P.N., Abakumova I., Sylka N.V. Emotions, Personality Traits and Metacognitions as Predictors of Students’ Psychological Well-Being in Contemporary Situation. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2022. Vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 85–96. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2022270507.

Full text


Students of all educational levels are subject to the negative effects of uncertainty and regularly face a number of difficulties that affect their success in mastering educational programs, their satisfaction with the process, well-being and psychological well-being. The specificity of educational activity lies in the impact on the student and the deep connection between academic success and his subjective characteristics. In modern conditions, there is an objective difficulty in taking into account and controlling external environmental factors, which in turn makes internal, subjective factors especially significant. It is these factors that can determine a certain level of functioning and adaptation of a person. At the same time, the education sector today, like many other areas, is in a state of continuous innovation. That, on the one hand, naturally affects, and on the other, depends on the well-being of the main subjects of educational activity. The relationship between the level of psychological well-being and self-efficacy and positive thinking has been studied and described [2; 15], as well as sustainability, mindfulness [24] and academic achievement [19]. However, the complexity and versatility of the very phenomenon of “psychological well-being”, as well as the transformational dynamism of the education, to this day leave the question of the factors and conditions for the students well-being open.

Since the situation of the assessment and the requerment to demonstrate a certain level of proficiency in educational content are themselves associated with an increase in tension and stress levels, the situation of knowledge control can be called one of the significant objective factors [2; 5; 12]. The features of pedagogical communication and the relationship of the student with the teaching staff are also significant. It is known that non-constructive communication in the educational process is a risk factor for reducing the well-being of life satisfaction and students [4; 8].

Recent studies suggest that subjective factors include the emotional state, personality traits, features of the motivational-value sphere, satisfaction with learning, affective-cognitive components, and metacognition [4; 13]. It has also been shown that students with a high level of resilience and mindfulness demonstrate higher levels of autonomy and self-acceptance, which, according to researchers, are components of psychological well-being [20].

Samokhvalova A.G. and colleagues on a sample of students of different profiles of education revealed a number of correlations of well-being with the parameters of motivation for creative self-realization, features of thinking, semantic sphere, communicative competence, creativity, reflexivity [12]. In a study with cadets of military universities, it was found that their psychological well-being depends on the timing of adaptation in new conditions, the characteristics of the worldview, and the feeling of satisfaction with educational, official and personal activities [9]. Rusina S.A. revealed the particular importance of role self-assessment in the psychological well-being of students and found that confidence in the consistency of the student’s personal qualities and the characteristics of educational and professional activities. The author also showed that compliance with all the norms and requirements of the educational institution, cause approval and self-recognition in a new social role, and this, in turn , leads to a positive change in the level of psychological well-being of students [11].

On metacognition, recent studies have shown the usefulness of assessing metacognitive skills in predicting the success of learning activities [14; 25], the role of metacognitive regulation in the context of communication is described [1], as well as the role of metacognitive involvement in the system of mental self-regulation of students [10].

Metacognition contains regulatory and reflective components. On the one hand, metacognitive skills cover the ability for self-regulation and self-organization in the process of cognition, on the other hand, the ability to track the process and progress of cognition, as well as self-check the results of activities. It has been established that the development of the abilities of metacognitive regulation of activity directly affects the management of students’ own cognition [6]. Danilenko O.I. has identified and described a complex of anticipatory viability: foresight, self-regulation in educational activities and psychosomatic self-regulation. Anticipatory activity, according to the author, is one of the important predictors of academic performance and is interconnected with indicators of subjective well-being [5]. In general, the number of works devoted to metaconions is obviously increasing. Both the metacognitive processes themselves and the skills and strategies of metacognitive behavior are studied [10; 14]. At the same time, despite the rather obvious factorial potential, metacognition is often studied in the structure of educational activity in some isolation from the student’s personality, or is considered exclusively in the context of self-regulation.

Thus, in modern conditions, the importance of studying the psychological aspects of the quality of life, personal effectiveness and productivity of educational activities is increasing. The unifying category for these areas is the category of “psychological well-being”, which we understand from a systemic standpoint and is understood as an integral socio-psychological entity, including the assessment and attitude of a person to his own life and personality, characterized by a subjective experience of satisfaction. Such an understanding allows, on the one hand, to some extent to use synonymously different terms in which it is customary to describe psychological well-being and its components, on the other hand, to simultaneously take into account these components and present them in a systematic way [7].

The main objective of this work was a comprehensive study of emotional-personal and metacognitive predictors of the psychological well-being of students.


The study involved students of higher educational institutions of the southern federal district of the Russian Federation - 317 people (68% female) aged 18 to 45 years (average age 20.82). Students of bachelor’s and specialist’s programs were 80% of the sample, 13% were enrolled in master’s programs, 7% were postgraduate students. Data collection was carried out from March 15, 2022 to April 18, 2022 in the format of online testing. All respondents agreed to participate in the study, were informed about its objectives and notified of further use and publication of the results.

To collect the socio-psychological data and measure the use of metacognitive skills, the survey was used. Respondents were asked to indicate gender, age, level of education, field of study and form of study, as well as to assess the severity of educational stress and the success of coping with it. The author’s self-assessment questionnaire for metacognitive behavior “Metacognitive skills in the structure of educational and professional activities” contained 9 questions to assess the use and awareness of the main forms of metacognitive behavior (metaplanning, procedural skills and metacognitive control).

To measure these characteristics, the following methods were used: a short portrait questionnaire of the Big Five (B5-10, Egorova M.S. and Parshikova O.V., 2016); methodology «Differential Scale of Emotions» (SDE, adaptation of Leonova A.V. and Kapitsa M.S., 2003); methodology for diagnosing the subjective well-being of the individual (Shamionov R.M., Beskova T.V., 2018); Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (G. Shrou, R. Dennison, adaptation by A.V. Karpov, 1994); Metacognitive behavior self-assessment scale (D. LaCosta, adaptation by A.V. Karpov, 1998); test “Differential type of reflection” (D.A. Leontiev, E.M. Lapteva, E.N. Osin, A.Zh. Salikhova, 2009); Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire by N. Garnefsky and V. Kraig (adapted by O.L. Pisareva, 2007).

Statistical methods included: Shapiro-Wilk test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), Kruskal-Wallace test. As a post hoc procedure, Dunn’s test with Holm’s correction for multiple comparisons was used. Statistical analysis of the results obtained was carried out using the freely distributed JASP Computer software (Version 0.16, 2021).


The majority of respondents believe that they face a relatively large amount of stressful situations at school (average for the sample - 5.74 out of 10 points) and cope with the academic load quite well (7.16 out of 10 points). At the same time, self-assessment of the levels of educational stress tends to inversely linear relationship with subjective ideas about academic success (Fig. 1).That is, the higher the students rate the level of academic stress, the worse, in their opinion, they cope with the academic load.

In the study of the main indicators of psychological well-being (Table 1), the highest results were found on the scale of social and normative well-being (mean value 3.87 points). It should be noted that the obtained value corresponds to a high level of this scale, which indicates high assessments of the compliance of their lives with social norms and moral values. The lowest indicators were found on the scale of hedonistic well-being (3.29), which indicates a reduced level of satisfaction of basic needs. At the same time, the established values on the scale of hedonistic well-being, as well as on the scales of emotional well-being (3.60), ego-well-being (3.40) and existential-activity well-being (3.56), correspond to the average values of the severity of these scales. The integral indicator of subjective well-being is also at the average level, which generally characterizes the sample positively.

To study the predictors of subjective well-being of students, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used, where the level of metacognitive involvement acted as a factor, and the degree of awareness of metacognitive skills and emotional and personal characteristics were considered as covariates (Table 2).

It was shown that the levels of metacognitive involvement (F = 3.907 at p = 0.021), extraversion (F = 12.870 at p < 0.001), consciousness (F = 12.246 at p < 0.001), neuroticism (F = 9.770 at p = 0.002), self-blame strategies (F = 4.437 at p = 0.036), positive refocusing (F = 5.467 at p = 0.020), and positive emotion index (F = 47.152 at p < 0.001) have a significant effect on well-being. There are also trends towards the significance of the effect for the strategies of positive revision (F = 3.035 at p = 0.083) and catastrophization (F = 3.764 at p = 0.053).

The results obtained indicate that the level of subjective well-being differs significantly depending on the level of metacognitive involvement (Kruskal-Wallis Test H = 70.098 at p < 0.001; Fig. 2).

Post hoc analysis using the Dunn method found that significant differences are observed between all levels of metacognitive involvement (Table 3).

Analysis of the effect of personal characteristics and features of the emotional sphere showed that higher rates of subjective well-being are observed in students with a high index of positive emotions, with more pronounced extraversion, consciousness and low values of neuroticism. It has also been shown that positive refocusing during regulation of emotions has a direct effect on the level of well-being, while the strategy of self-blame has the opposite effect (Fig. 3).

Table 1

The results of the study of the main components of the psychological well-being
of students (N=317)



Standard deviation

Emotional well-being



Existential-activity well-being



Ego well-being



Hedonistic well-being



Socio-normative well-being



Subjective well-being



Table 2

Results of ANCOVA for predictors of subjective well-being of students


Sum of squares

Mean square



The level of metacognitive involvement









< 0.001










< 0.001






Decreased reflection over cognitive operations





Degree of awareness using metacognitive skills





Positive Emotion Index




< 0.001

Anxiety-Depressive Emotion Index Level




















Positive refocus





Refocusing on planning





Positive revision





Place in perspective























F-statistic: 1.37, df2 = 314.000; p-value: 0.046

Table 3

Dunn’s Post Hoc Comparisons

Comparison by the level of metacognitive involvement



Intermediate level (3) – Advanced level (4)


< 0.001

Intermediate level (3) – High level (5)


< 0.001

Advanced level (4) – High level (5)


< 0.001

Figure 1. Analysis of the results of the self-assessment of the levels of educational stress
and the success of coping with the academic load

Figure 2. Analysis of the influence of the level of metacognitive involvement on the level of subjective well-being


Figure 3. Analysis of the effect of personal characteristics and features of the emotional sphere


The described relationships between the subjective well-being of students and the levels of metacognitive involvement are confirmed by the results of numerous correlation studies of psychological well-being and the characteristics of self-regulation and reflection [10; 17; 26]. The relationship of personal characteristics with the level and components of psychological well-being has also been widely studied. Extraversion and prosocial behavior, along with links to psychological well-being, demonstrate a high potential for more successful adaptation and functioning of a person in many areas of activity [16; 21; 23]. On emotional regulation, it has been established that high indicators of emotional regulation reveal connections both with the level of psychological well-being and contribute to more adaptive options for coping with difficult situations [22]. At the same time, the connection of positive emotions with a high level of psychological well-being seems to be quite obvious. It is also worth noting that positive refocusing and rethinking of the situation themselves are considered to be the most adaptive strategies for cognitive regulation of emotions, which is also supports our result [18].

Based on the above, we can conclude that the data obtained do not contradict the results of studies obtained both on Russian samples and in abroad studies. Our data clarify the place and content of the metacognitive component in the structure of the factors of psychological well-being of students. This determines the scientific value and novelty of our results. It should also be noted that the purpose of the study was to identify universal predictors of student well-being, in this regard, the sample was analyzed in its entirety without dividing the respondents by gender, age and level of education, which is both a significant limitation of this work and represents a further perspective of the study.


The ability to plan, monitor and control the process of learning activities (metacognitive involvement), as well as focus on the outside world (extraversion) and a higher degree of organization (conscientiousness) have a positive impact on the level of subjective well-being. At the same time, refocusing to the positive aspects of stressful situations and searching for a positive meaning of the events that have occurred for the purpose of personal growth or acquiring new experience has a strong supporting effect. The greatest destructive potential has a high level of neuroticism, a tendency to self-blame in stressful situations and a tendency to not take into account the prospect of using negative experience.

The results of this study can help in the development and correction of individual metacognitive strategies that contribute to successful adaptation and maintenance of subjective satisfaction in changing socio-political and economic conditions.


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Information About the Authors

Ekaterina G. Denisova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Psychophysiology and Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Pedagogy and Defectology, Don State Technical University, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0240-8176, e-mail: keithdenisova@gmail.com

Pavel N. Ermakov, Doctor of Biology, Professor, Head of the Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychophysiology, Southern Federal University, Head of the Southern Federal Regional Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Education, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8395-2426, e-mail: paver@sfedu.ru

Irina Abakumova, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Psychology, Pedagogy and Defectology, Don State Technical University, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2202-2588, e-mail: abakira@mail.ru

Nadezhda V. Sylka, Student, Don State Technical University, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7324-8670, e-mail: gramtysh99@gmail.com



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