Phenomenology of Different Forms of Psychological Violence among Youth: Foreign Studies



We provide an overview of modern Western literature devoted to the problem of psychological violence and its various manifestations in the education system, particularly at school. We briefly characterize the approaches to the problem of violence, describe the results of several studies demonstrating the relationship of the psychological climate at school and academic performance, the probability of applying for support to teachers and peers, give the specific facts of influence of sex, age and other socio- psychological characteristics, extending and specifying the notion of phenomenology of psychological violence. We show the role of cultural values and school microclimat as fundamental factors of violence prevention. Our recommendations are aimed at the prevention and reduction of violence in the modern education system (in particular, bullying and cyberbullying).

General Information

Keywords: violence, aggression, bullying, cyberbullying, culture, school climate, victimization

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Kozhukhar G.S. Phenomenology of Different Forms of Psychological Violence among Youth: Foreign Studies [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2014. Vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 230–245. DOI: 10.17759/psyedu.2014060220. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Galina S. Kozhukhar, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Chair of Theoretical Foundations of Social Psychology, Department of Social Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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